Presynaptic PTP σ regulates postsynaptic NMDA receptor function through direct adhesion-independent mechanisms
Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and function. However, whether and how presynaptic adhesion molecules regulate postsynaptic NMDAR function remains largely unclear. Presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) regulate synapse development through mechanisms that include trans-synaptic adhesion; however, whether they regulate postsynaptic receptor functions remains unknown. Here we report that presynaptic PTP σ, a LAR-RPTP, enhances postsynaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) currents and NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. This regulation does not involve trans-synaptic adhesions of PTPσ, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domains of PTPσ, known to have tyrosine phosphatase activity and media te protein-protein interactions, are important. In line with this, phosphotyrosine levels of presynaptic proteins, including neurexin-1, are strongly increased in PTPσ-mutant mice. Behaviorally, PTPσ-dependent NMDAR regulation is important for social and reward-related novelty recognition. These r esults suggest that presynaptic PTPσ regulates postsynaptic NMDAR function through trans-synaptic and direct adhesion-independent mechanisms and novelty recognition in social and reward contexts.
Authors: Zhylkaidarova A, Kaidarova D, Batyrbekov K, Shatkovskaya O, Begimbetova D Abstract We carried out an analysis of the total incidence of colon cancer throughout Kazakhstan. Retrospectively, according to the regional reports on endoscopic screening, the study showed an increase in the age-related incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases from 2004-2008 to 2009-2014. The peak of morbidity in both periods was noted in the age category of>70 years. The indicators of the territorial distribution of CRC incidence make it possible to divide the regions into areas with low or high rates of CRC. Specific indicat...
Conclusions: The transduodenal approach for obtaining samples from solid lesions using a 19-G flexible needle seems feasible and accurate. PMID: 32447874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]