The journey of Zika to the developing brain.

The journey of Zika to the developing brain. Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Mar 03;: Authors: Rombi F, Bayliss R, Tuplin A, Yeoh S Abstract Zika virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus originally isolated from humans in 1952. Following its re-emergence in Brazil in 2015, an increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly to infected mothers was observed. Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised phenotypically by a smaller than average head size, and is usually developed in utero. The 2015 outbreak in the Americas led to the World Health Organisation declaring Zika a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Since then, much research into the effects of Zika has been carried out. Studies have investigated the structure of the virus, its effects on and evasion of the immune response, cellular entry including target receptors, its transmission from infected mother to foetus and its cellular targets. This review discusses current knowledge and novel research into these areas, in hope of developing a further understanding of how exposure of pregnant women to the Zika virus can lead to impaired brain development of their foetus. Although no longer considered an epidemic in the Americas, the mechanism by which Zika acts is still not comprehensively and wholly understood, and this understanding will be crucial in developing effective vaccines and treatments. PMID: 32128708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research

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her For the first 60 years following its isolation, Zika virus (ZIKV) remained a relatively poorly described member of the Flaviviridae family. However, since 2007, it has caused a series of increasingly severe outbreaks and is now associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). A number of reports have improved our understanding of rare complications that may be associated with ZIKV infection in adults, the areas of the body to which it spreads, and viral persistence in various tissues. Likewise, studies on the effect of ZIKV infection during pregnan...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Antonio E. Muruato, Chao Shan, Camila R. Fontes-Garfias, Yang Liu, Qiang Gao, Scott C. Weaver, Pei-Yong ShiAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3′UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both &D...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of Zika Congenital Syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. To prevent future ZIKV outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3'UTR of the viral genome (Δ10 and Δ20). After a single-dose immunization, both Δ10 and Δ20 LAVs protected mice and non-human primates against ZIKV infection. Here, we characterized the stability, safety, and efficacy of the LAVs after continuously culturing th...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
ard Hildt Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) came first to public attention after it was found to be associated with congenital microcephaly during the outbreak in Brazil (2015–2016). Diagnosis of ZIKV suffers from extensive cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses, which are circulating in many ZIKV epidemic areas. Due to the fatal outcome of ZIKV infection during pregnancy, detailed knowledge about neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes is crucial for the development of robust detection systems of protective antibodies. Therefore, additional information about ZIKV immunogenicity and antibody response is requi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Pregnant women &vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response. Vaccine. 2019 May 03;: Authors: Krubiner CB, Faden RR, Karron RA, Little MO, Lyerly AD, Abramson JS, Beigi RH, Cravioto AR, Durbin AP, Gellin BG, Gupta SB, Kaslow DC, Kochhar S, Luna F, Saenz C, Sheffield JS, Tindana PO, PREVENT Working Group Abstract Zika virus, influenza, and Ebola have called attention to the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely - and at times uniquely - affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. These examples also hig...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Source: Wellcome Trust. Published: 9/2018. This 96-page guidance provides a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens. It discusses how recent epidemics, including Zika virus, Lassa Fever, Ebola, and H1N1 influenza, have highlighted the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. It specifies 22 concrete recommendations, organized around three key areas: public health preparedness, R&D, and vaccine delivery. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Conclusions Surveillance, risk assessment, and intervention were strengthened throughout Malaysia in response to the 2016 outbreak of ZIKV in neighboring Singapore. The Malaysian Ministry of Health undertook regular surveillance from June 2015 during the South American outbreak, but no ZIKV was detected in 784 samples tested up to August 2016 (https://kpkesihatan.com/2016/08/28/kenyataan-akhbar-kpk-28-ogos-2016-situasi-terkini-virus-zika-di-malaysia/). However, during the peak of the 2016 Singapore ZIKV outbreak from September through December 2016, eight out of 849 samples tested were positive for ZIKV (https://kpkesiha...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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