Associations between geographic region and immune response variations to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in clinical trials: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide (O ’Brien et al., 2009). In 2000, it was estimated that 14.5 million episodes of serious pneumococcal disease occurred, causing 826 000 deaths in children, with over 61% of deaths occurring in African and Asian countries. Since 2000, protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines targeting pneumococcal serotypes have been introduced for use in children. Following its widespread use, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection, and hospital admissions due to pneumonia and acute otitis media, mainly in high income coun tries (Fitzwater et al., 2012).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionsCanadian PCV programs have provided significant health benefits and resulted in a substantial value for money. Net savings achieved over the reviewed period would have provided funding for $1.76  billion in other health care costs or public health initiatives. These findings highlight the importance of considering the total value of a vaccination program, rather than vaccine acquisition costs only, when assessing the value of immunization programs.
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Blue Water Vaccines Inc., a Norwood startup, has entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement with St. Jude Children ’s Research Hospital to develop a vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria can cause many kinds of diseases, including the lung infection pneumonia. “A major limitation of the currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines is the lack of efficacy against mucosal disease manifestations such as acute otitis media, acute bacterial sinusitis and pneumonia,” Blue Water…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Conclusion: According to WHO-recommended thresholds for interpreting cost-effectiveness, introduction of PCV-13 for children under 5 years in the Islamic Republic of Iran would be cost-effective. PMID: 31774134 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, bacteremia, bacteremic pneumonia, empyema, and mucosal infections such as otitis media and non-bacteremic pneumonia. After the implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), worldwide, the burden of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) and non-invasive pneumococcal diseases due to vaccine serotypes (VTs) greatly decreased in children.1 However, since 2015, several European countries have reported an increased incidence of IPDs due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs), which seemed variable across countries in ter...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: European Paediatric Association Source Type: research
Conclusions: The PHiD-CV vaccination program in Brazil has resulted in important reductions of pneumococcal disease and substantial cost savings. Instead of switching PCVs, expanding vaccine coverage or investing in other health care interventions would be a more efficient use of resources to improve the health of the population in Brazil.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Discussion This case demonstrates successful cure of pre-B-ALL complicating XLA by alloSCT with restoration of B-cell development and functional antibody response. We are aware of only one previous case of pre-B-ALL in an XLA patient (21), which suggests that human BTK deficiency in itself does not predispose to pre-B-ALL. However, there are data to suggest that BTK may act as a tumor suppressor, and BTK deficiency may predispose to tumor development following a “second hit.” Mice with a genetic deficiency in Slp65, a gene encoding an adaptor protein that functions together with BTK, have a block in progenito...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAny difference in price between PHiD-CV and PCV13 is expected to be the key driver of vaccine choice for preventing childhood pneumococcal disease in Turkey. At price parity, PHiD-CV use is likely to be a dominant strategy over the use of PCV13.
Source: Value in Health Regional Issues - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionThe ongoing NIP in Algeria is projected to reduce the impact and economic toll of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. If an NIP were also introduced in Tunisia, a commensurate impact would be expected. PCV NIPs are highly cost-effective, highly impactful public health interventions.FundingPfizer.
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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