IDO and Kynurenine Metabolites in Peripheral and CNS Disorders

The importance of the kynurenine pathway in normal immune system function has led to an appreciation of its possible contribution to autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity exerts a protective function, limiting the severity of experimental arthritis, whereas deletion or inhibition exacerbates the symptoms. Other chronic disorder with an inflammatory component, such as atherosclerosis, are also suppressed by IDO activity. It is suggested that this overall anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by a change in the relative production or activity of Th17 and regulatory T cell populations. Kynurenines may play an anti-inflammatory role also in CNS disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, in which signs of inflammation and neurodegeneration are involved. The possibility is discussed that in Huntington's disease kynurenines interact with other anti-inflammatory molecules such as Human Lymphocyte Antigen-G which may be relevant in other disorders. Kynurenine involvement may account for the protection afforded to animals with cerebral malaria and trypanosomiasis when they are treated with an inhibitor of kynurenine-3-monoxygenase (KMO). There is some evidence that changes in IL-10 may contribute to this protection and the relationship between kynurenines and IL-10 in arthritis and other inflammatory conditions should be explored. In addition, metabolites of kynurenine downstream of KMO, s...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Chem. Commun., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0CC01971B, CommunicationWenxiao Wu, Tingting Zheng, Yang Tian An enzyme-free amplification strategy based on two-photon fluorescent carbon dots for monitoring miR-9 in live neurons and brain tissues of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) mice. Notably, using our developed probe, miR-9... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
A "NICE" advance toward developing replacement bone tissues for treating arthritis, bone fractures, dental infections and craniofacial defects.This is an NSF Multimedia Gallery item.
Source: NSF Multimedia Gallery - Category: Science Source Type: video
Abstract Objective: Autoimmune conditions tend to cluster in subjects with Addison's disease (AD) and probably also among their relatives. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of the endocrine gland-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of patients with AD. Methods: Autoantibodies were investigated in 113 family members using RIA and ELISA assays. The control group comprised 143 age-matched volunteers. Results: Autoimmune diseases were diagnosed in 38.1% relatives. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 20.3%, Graves' disease in 8.0%, vitiligo and type 1 diabetes in 3.5%, whereas ...
Source: European Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Eur J Endocrinol Source Type: research
A group of conservative U.S. doctors has sued the Food and Drug Administration for limiting use of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19, arguing that the therapy should be made widely available to fight the pandemic.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Authors: Kyrkoudis T, Tsoucalas G, Fiska A Abstract The choice of Dedeagatch as the place where the station of the Adrianoupolis-Constantinople railway line was to be built was the reason for the foundation of the Greek city of Alexandroupolis (originally under the Ottoman government). The population grew in its early years mainly due to the settlement by railway and construction workers. Meanwhile, poverty, poor hygiene and environmental conditions led to a series of epidemics and various sporadic cases of infections such as malaria, typhoid fever, scarlet fever and tubercolosis, infections which marked the early ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
We report herein a case of bloodstream infection due to LM in a 25-year-old woman with MS treated with alemtuzumab. We searched the UMC/WHO Vigibase system for all reported cases of LM in patients treated with alemtuzumab and found 29 cases overall up to 21 July 2019. We also performed a literature review of MS cases with LM on alemtuzumab, in order to evaluate epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcome of this complication. Since the published cases (N=8) were mainly reported in recent years but more cases were found in the UMC/WHO Vigibase system (although not necessarily in patients with MS), we hypothesize tha...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
Authors: Piazza MJ, Gonzales-Zamora JA Abstract Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an uncommon present-day cause of septic arthritis. It is generally seen in the younger patient population and is often difficult to isolate in the lab. Blood cultures performed as routine work are usually negative, and when positive tend to be seen in the classic form of disseminated gonococcal infection. Here we report a case of acute septic monoarthritis, associated with N. gonorrhoea bacteraemia, in a 67-year-old male patient with multiple chronic comorbidities, who presented with acute pain and swelling at his left elbow, and no associated...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
Cellular reproduction defines life, yet our textbook-level understanding of cell division is limited to a small number of model organisms centered around humans. The horizon on cell division variants is expanded here by advancing insights on the fascinating cell division modes found in the Apicomplexa, a key group of protozoan parasites. The Apicomplexa display remarkable variation in offspring number, whether karyokinesis follows each S/M-phase or not, and whether daughter cells bud in the cytoplasm or bud from the cortex. We find that the terminology used to describe the various manifestations of asexual apicomplexan cel...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Several authors of a large study that raised safety concerns about malaria drugs for coronavirus patients have retracted the report
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
Conclusions: The obtained data indicate that TNF-α, TNFR1, and TNFR2 may be useful markers of the efficacy of anti-TNF therapy, thus complementing clinical parameters. PMID: 32489364 [PubMed]
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Alzheimer's | Arthritis | Autoimmune Disease | Brain | Huntington's Disease | Malaria | Multiple Sclerosis | Neurology | Rheumatoid Arthritis | Rheumatology