Detection of dengue virus type 2 of Indian origin in acute febrile patients in rural Kenya

by Moses Muia Masika, Essi Korhonen, Teemu Smura, Ruut Uusitalo, Katariina Vapalahti, Dufton Mwaengo, Anne J. J ääskeläinen, Omu Anzala, Olli Vapalahti, Eili Huhtamo Dengue virus (DENV) has caused recent outbreaks in coastal cities of Kenya, but the epidemiological situation in other areas of Kenya is largely unknown. We investigated the role of DENV infection as a cause of acute febrile disease in non-epidemic settings in rural and urban study areas in Kenya. Altogether, 560 patients were sampled in 2016–2017 in rural Taita–Taveta County (n = 327) and urban slums of Kibera, Nairobi (n = 233). The samples were studied for DENV IgM, IgG, NS1 antigen and flaviviral RNA. IgG seroprevalence was found to be higher in Taita –Taveta (14%) than in Nairobi (3%). Five Taita–Taveta patients were positive for flaviviral RNA, all identified as DENV-2, cosmopolitan genotype. Local transmission in Taita–Taveta was suspected in a patient without travel history. The sequence analysis suggested that DENV-2 strains circulatin g in coastal and southern Kenya likely arose from a single introduction from India. The molecular clock analyses dated the most recent ancestor to the Kenyan strains a year before the large 2013 outbreak in Mombasa. After this, the virus has been detected in Kilifi in 2014, from our patients in Tait a–Taveta in 2016, and in an outbreak in Malindi in 2017. The results highlight that silent transmission occurs between epide...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Gorry C Abstract Meningitis, neuropathy, HIV, dengue-since the 1960s, Cuba has faced its share of epidemics. More recently, Cuban health pro-fessionals tackled domestic outbreaks of H1N1 (2009) and Zika (2016), and worked alongside colleagues from around the world to stem Ebola in West Africa; all three were categorized by WHO as public health emergencies of international concern. In December 2019, China reported its fi rst cluster of pneumo-nia cases, later identifi ed as the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19. In January 2020, Cuban authorities convened a multi-sector working group coordinated by the Min...
Source: MEDICC Review - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research
Stemming COVID-19 in Cuba: Strengths, Strategies, ChallengesFrancisco Durán MD. MEDICC Rev. 2020 Jan;22(2):47-52 Authors: Reed G Abstract Dr Durán is a native of eastern San-tiago de Cuba and his early medical career began in this mountainous re-gion, where he also headed provin-cial prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. He went on to become rector of the Medical University of Santiago de Cuba and provincial health direc-tor. Later in Havana, Dr Durán was director of medical education and vice minister at the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP). Abroad, he served as advisor to Angol...
Source: MEDICC Review - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research
Cuba's Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute:Battling COVID-19 One Study, One Test, One Patient at a Time. MEDICC Rev. 2020 Jan;22(2):40-44 Authors: Coutin G, Bacallao-Gallestey J, Castellanos-Serra L Abstract This MEDICC Review roundtable brings you specialists from Havana's Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK), who are working directly with testing, research and patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Founded in 1937 by its namesake, the Institute has gained considerable worldwide prestige. Today, it is a PAHO-WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Dengue and Its Vector...
Source: MEDICC Review - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research
va MM, Gomes CES Abstract The Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses have been spreading in tropical regions, causing epidemics with high morbidity rates and fatal cases. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and abundance of culicid species and the presence of arboviruses in mosquitoes, at the epicenter of an epidemic outbreak that occurred in people living near an urban Atlantic Forest park. Mosquitoes were captured with a Shannon trap between 2 and 6 pm in seven months of 2019. The Chikungunya virus was investigated according to the protocol described by Lanciotti (2007). The most abundant species wer...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our study describes the early detection of a newly introduced and rapidly-expanding DENV2 virus lineage in Brazil. PMID: 32428189 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
Dengue virus (DENV) is a global health threat, causing repeated epidemics throughout the tropical world. While low herd immunity levels to any one of the four antigenic types of DENV predispose populations to outbreaks, viral genetic determinants that confer greater fitness for epidemic spread is an important but poorly understood...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
We examined the spatiotemporal distribution and epidemiological characteristics of reported dengue cases in the predominantly rural state of Sabah, in Malaysian Borneo–an area where sylvati c and urban circulation of pathogens are known to intersect. Using a public health data set of routinely notified dengue cases in Sabah between 2010 and 2016, we described demographic and entomological risk factors, both before and after a 2014 change in the clinical case definition for the disease. Annual dengue incidence rates were spatially variable over the 7-year study period from 2010–2016 (state-wide mean annual incid...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Jue Tao Lim, Borame Sue Dickens, Sun Haoyang, Ng Lee Ching, Alex Richard Cook Dengue, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the dengue viruses, is present in many parts of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. All four serotypes of dengue viruses are endemic in Singapore, an equatorial city-state. Frequent outbreaks occur, sometimes leading to national epidemics. However, few studies have attempted to characterize breakpoints which precede large rises in dengue case counts. In this paper, Bayesian regime switching (BRS) models were employed to infer epidemic and endemic regimes of dengue transmissi...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
By CHADI NABHAN, MD, MBA, FACP If you are a soccer fan, watching the FIFA World Cup is a ritual that you don’t ever violate. Brazilians, arguably more than any other fans in the world, live and breathe soccer—and they are always expected to be a legitimate contender to win it all. Their expectations are magnified when they are the host country, which was the case in 2014. Not only did the Germans destroy Brazilian World Cup dreams, but less than a year after a humiliating loss on their turf, Brazilians began dealing with another devastating blow: a viral epidemic. Zika left the country scrambling to understa...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Health Policy Chadi Nabhan epidemic Pandemic Zika Source Type: blogs
de Jesús Molina-Gamboa Santos Daniel Carmona Aguirre Bernardita de Lourdes Reyes-Berrones Luis Javier Cortés-De la cruz Alejandro García-Barrientos Raúl E. Huidobro-Guevara Regina M. Brussolo-Ceballos Josue Ramirez Aaron Salazar Luis F. Chaves Ismael E. Badillo-Vargas Gabriel L. Hamer Mosquito-borne viruses are emerging or re-emerging globally, afflicting millions of people around the world. Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is the principal vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, and has well-established populations across tropical and subtropical urb...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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