Update on Pediatric Optic Neuritis

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an update on advances in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating optic neuritis.Recent FindingsIn the past decade, the disease phenotypes for demyelinating syndromes in children have been more clearly defined. Pediatric optic neuritis may present as a clinically isolated syndrome or in the setting of underlying neurologic disease. In addition to optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica, recent work has identified antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG IgG) as a unique demyelinating cause with distinct features regarding treatment and prognosis.SummaryThe disease phenotypes for demyelinating pediatric optic neuritis have expanded. Treatment strategies vary and are not universally effective for each cause of demyelinating disease. Accurately distinguishing among these unique clinical syndromes is therefore critical for initiation of appropriate treatment to prevent disability, to maximize visual outcomes, and to provide insight into long-term prognosis.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Destruction of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in cortical gray matter profoundly alters neural activity and is associated with cognitive disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Myelin can be restored by regenerating oligodendrocytes from resident progenitors; however, it is not known whether regeneration restores the complex myelination patterns in cortical circuits. Here we performed time lapsein vivo two photon imaging in somatosensory cortex of adult mice to define the kinetics and specificity of myelin regeneration after acute oligodendrocyte ablation. These longitudinal studies revealed that the pattern of myelina...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the interaction between aging, progressive disease course, disability worsening, and treatment strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS).Recent FindingsThe transition from the relapsing-remitting phase to the progressive phase in MS often happens in the fifth decade. In MS, structural central nervous system reserve decreases with aging and MS-associated mechanisms. While clinical and subclinical disease activity decreases with aging, the post-relapse recovery potential decreases with aging as well. Moreover, the efficacy of disease-modifying treatments declines ...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe effects of daclizumab beta on clinical and radiologic outcomes were sustained for up to ~  8 years of treatment. No new safety concerns were identified in SELECTED.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT01051349; first registered on January 15, 2010.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate systematically the efficacy of exergames for balance dysfunction in neurological conditions and to identify factors of exergaming protocols that may influence their effects.MethodsWe searched electronic databases for randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of commercial exergames versus alternative interventions on balance dysfunction as assessed by standard clinical scales in adults with acquired neurological disabilities. Standardized mean differences (Hedge ’sg) were calculated with random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were run to explore potential m...
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsNeurofilament light has shown consistent utility as a biomarker of neuroinflammation, future brain atrophy and immunosuppressive treatment response at agroup level. Neither neurofilament light or heavy has shown a consistent treatment response to neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies, which will require further data from successful randomised controlled trials.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Basel, 22 May 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) will present new pooled pivotal satralizumab safety results for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a rare, debilitating central nervous system disorder. These data are being presented at the 6th Annual Meeting of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and show satralizumab was well-tolerated in a broad patient population – including adolescents, for whom there is no approved medicine. Satralizumab is an investigational humanised monoclonal antibody that targets the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, believed to play a key role in the i...
Source: Roche Media News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
This article summarizes the current knowledge about cognitive dysfunction in the early phase of MS, including biomarkers, MRI correlates, and its value as a prognostic marker.Recent FindingsNew sets of neuropsychological tests have been established to screen for cognitive dysfunction more easily and accurately. Moreover, structural changes detected by brain MRI and several biomarkers found in cerebrospinal fluid and blood serum have been recently correlated with decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, factors influencing cognition in MS, such as disease-modifying therapy, mood disorders, and lifestyle, are better de...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
DiscussionThe use of common tools for neurological examination could improve tele-neurology practice for both general neurologists and MS specialists, and quality of care for people with MS.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) are unable to prevent inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system (CNS), and none directly promote repair. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for therapies that can arrest and reverse the persistent accumulation of disabilities associated with progressive forms of MS (P-MS). Preclinical research has revealed an unexpected ability of neural stem cell (NSC) therapies to provide neurotrophic support and inhibit detrimental host immune responses in vivo following transplantation into the chronicall...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
WEDNESDAY, May 20, 2020 -- Elevated plasma neurofilament light chain (pNfL) levels are associated with an increased risk for reaching sustained disability worsening in multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online May 20 in...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
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