Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests: Environmental, Health, Political, and Sociological Considerations

The process of nuclear fission, which was discovered in 1938, opened the door to the production of nuclear weapons, which were used in 1945 by the United States against Japan in World War II, and to the detonation of>500 nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, and France from 1946–1980. Hundreds of radionuclides, most of them short-lived, were produced in the atmospheric tests. The radioactive clouds produced by the explosions were usually partitioned between the troposphere and the stratosphere: the activity that remained in the troposphere resulted in local and regional fallout, consisting mainly of short-lived radionuclides and in relatively high doses for the populations residing in the vicinity of the test site, whereas the activity that reached the stratosphere returned to the ground with a half-life of ~1 y and was composed of long-lived radionuclides that contaminated all uncovered materials on Earth to a small extent and led to low-level irradiation of the world population for decades or more. The health effects resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout constitute, in most cases, small excesses over baseline rates for thyroid cancer and leukemia. An extra 49,000 cases of thyroid cancer would be expected to occur among the US population from exposure to radioactive fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950s. In additi...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE NCRP 2019 MEETING, NCRP MEETING THE CHALLENGE AT 90: PROVIDING BEST ANSWERS TO YOUR MOST PRESSING QUESTIONS ABOUT RADIATION Source Type: research

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Contributors : Anuhar Chaturvedi ; Razif Gabdoulline ; Michael HeuserSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensMutations in the enzymes IDH1 and IDH2 have been identified in a wide variety of tumors like glioma, chondrosarcoma, thyroid cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, and in acute myeloid leukemia. Mutated IDH1/2 produces the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which interferes with epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thus may promote tumorigenesis. Data for IDH1 inhibitors show that 30-40% of AML patients respond to monotherapy with a median duration of response of 8 mont...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Anuhar Chaturvedi ; Razif Gabdoulline ; Michael HeuserSeries Type : Methylation profiling by genome tiling arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensMutations in the enzymes IDH1 and IDH2 have been identified in a wide variety of tumors like glioma, chondrosarcoma, thyroid cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, and in acute myeloid leukemia. Mutated IDH1/2 produces the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which interferes with epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thus may promote tumorigenesis. Data for IDH1 inhibitors show that 30-40% of AML patients respond to monotherapy with a median duration of response of 8 months, su...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by genome tiling array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Conclusions: Stem cells-targeted α-particle therapy with 211At-CXCR4 mAb is promising for AML , because absorbed dose delivered to target cells to normal organs would be high enough based on the dosimetry evaluation using tumor xenograft and sphere model. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H05393.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Oncology & amp; Translational (Poster Session) Source Type: research
Thyroid cancer diagnoses are up to three times more common in 9/11 first responders...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Does thyroid cancer screening lead to overdiagnosis? CT radiation increases risk of thyroid cancer, leukemia AI boosts ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening New thyroid test could help patients avoid surgery US screening data from Fukushima shed light on thyroid cancer in kids
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
lomagno Following the identification of the BCR-ABL1 (Breakpoint Cluster Region-ABelson murine Leukemia) fusion in chronic myelogenous leukemia, gene fusions generating chimeric oncoproteins have been recognized as common genomic structural variations in human malignancies. This is, in particular, a frequent mechanism in the oncogenic conversion of protein kinases. Gene fusion was the first mechanism identified for the oncogenic activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET (REarranged during Transfection), initially discovered in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). More recently, the advent of highly sensitive massive...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
A simple and cost-effective intervention led to reductions in CT radiation...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Report: Medical radiation dose plummets 20% Low-dose CT produces no detectable DNA damage CT radiation increases risk of thyroid cancer, leukemia Radiologist leadership cuts CT lung screening radiation New study links medical imaging radiation to cancer risk
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
The debate over the potential harms of CT radiation carries on in a new study...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: CT radiation increases risk of thyroid cancer, leukemia Medical radiation dose dips 20% in U.S., NCRP reports Radiologist leadership cuts CT lung screening radiation New study links medical imaging radiation to cancer risk Concerns grow over CT radiation for kidney stones
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: GDM is associated with a greater risk of cancer in women, including breast, thyroid, stomach and liver cancers. However, further investigation is nonetheless warranted. PMID: 32097717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
eong Park The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been increasing worldwide. PTC is the most common type of differentiated thyroid cancer and usually shows good prognosis. However, some PTC is driven to advanced stage by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediated drug resistance, which is particularly noticeable in pediatric patients. There are limited options for systemic treatment, necessitating development of new clinical approaches. Here, we aimed to clarify genetic differences due to age of patients with PTC, and thereby aid in developing novel therapeutics. Patients with biochemically and his...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the patients with PTM had comparable outcomes with regard to mortality and cancer-specific mortality compared with those without PTM. This study showed that the patients with PTM can obtain an acceptable outcome after LDLT when carefully selected. PMID: 32023575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
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