Perivascular adipose tissue in age-related vascular disease.

Perivascular adipose tissue in age-related vascular disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Feb 26;:101040 Authors: Queiroz M, Sena CM Abstract Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a crucial regulator of vascular homeostasis, is actively involved in vascular dysfunction during aging. PVAT releases various adipocytokines, chemokines and growth factors. In an endocrine and paracrine manner PVAT-derived factors regulate vascular signalling and inflammation modulating functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, vascular injury and aging can cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. We and others have suggested that PVAT is involved in the inflammatory response of the vascular wall in diet induced obesity animal models leading to vascular dysfunction due to disappearance of the physiological anticontractile effect. Previous studies confirm a crucial role for pinpointed PVAT inflammation in promoting vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, enhancing the risk for development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss several studies and mechanisms linking PVAT to age-related vascular diseases. An overview of the suggested roles played by PVAT in different disorders associated with the vasculature such as endothelial dysfunction, neointimal formation, aneurysm, vascular contractility and stiffness will be performed. PVAT may be con...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

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A fair amount of effort is presently put towards the exploration of supplements derived from vitamin B3 compounds (nicotinamide, niacin, nicotinamide riboside) that act as precursors to enable the manufacture of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is an important component in mitochondrial activity, and levels decline with age. Some portion of the loss of mitochondrial function, implicated in the progression of many age-related conditions, is due to NAD insufficiency. There is a rich history of the use of high doses of vitamin B3 as an intervention, most of it predating modern understanding of the role of NAD in m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Regional efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 have so far proven successful. Image Credit: Pacific CommunityBy William W. EllisTORONTO, May 29 2020 (IPS) By now, the impact of COVID19 on our daily lives has been well documented, especially in advanced economies. Anxiety about the future continues to grow everywhere. Much of the corporate news coverage we consume has focused on the toll this pandemic will take on mainland countries. Often neglected, however, is the unique position Pacific Island States find themselves in. Globally, there are close to 6 million confirmed cases of COVID19. According to the Pacific Commu...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Climate Change Economy & Trade Featured Financial Crisis Global Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies Labour Multimedia Podcast TerraViva United Nations Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Sajad Jeddi, Sevda Gheibi, Khosrow Kashfi, Mattias Carlström, Asghar Ghasemi
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This article summarizes what we know about the effect of metabolic surgery on the complications of diabetes, poses some unanswered questions, and suggests how we could answer them.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Pilone V, Tramontano S, Cutolo C, Marchese F, Pagano AM, Di Spirito F, Schiavo L Abstract We aim to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery (BS), and to identify factors that might be associated with VDD. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study involving all consecutive patients scheduled for BS from 2017 to 2019. The exclusion criteria were missing data for vitamin D levels, intake of vitamin D supplements in the 3 months prior to serum vitamin D determination, and renal insufficiency. A total of 206 patients (mean age and body mass index...
Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Vitam Nutr Res Source Type: research
uyen-Tran Weijun Shen Owing to their pleiotropic metabolic benefits, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have been successfully utilized for treating metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. As part of our efforts in developing long-acting peptide therapeutics, we have previously reported a peptide engineering strategy that combines peptide side chain stapling with covalent integration of a serum protein-binding motif in a single step. Herein, we have used this strategy to develop a second generation extendin-4 analog rigidified with a symmetrical staple, which exhibits an excellent in ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition characterized by the co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1,2]. It includes various combinations of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), atherogenic dyslipidemia with elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, and elevated blood pressure (BP) [3]. The modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) definition is one of the most widely used criteria for MetS [4], because it uses available clinical variabl...
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Western world has increased dramatically during the recent decades. According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The relationship among obesity, T2DM and PC is complex. Due to increase in obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption and sedentary lifestyle, the mortality due to PC is expected to rise significantly by year 2040. The underlying mechanisms by which diabetes and obesity contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis are not well understood. Furthermore, me...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
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