Global chemical effects of the microbiome include new bile-acid conjugations

Nature, Published online: 26 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2047-9Metabolomics data from germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice reveal effects of the microbiome on host chemistry, identifying conjugations of bile acids that are also enriched in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research

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;llertz A Abstract The release and absorption profile of an oral medication is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the drug and its formulation, as well as by the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. During drug development the bioavailability of a new drug is typically assessed in early clinical studies in a healthy adult population. However, many disease conditions are associated with an alteration of the anatomy and/or physiology of the GI tract. The same holds true for some subpopulations, such as paediatric or elderly patients, or populations with different ethnicity. The var...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research
Contributors : Aditya Mithal ; Jed Mahoney ; Gustavo MostoslavskySeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensEfficient generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs) would facilitate the development of  in vitro models for a variety of diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease or Cystic Fibrosis. 
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Conclusion: Good2Go is a valid 20-item questionnaire to assess transition readiness in adolescents with chronic conditions and may be useful in routine care to propose individually tailored preparation for their transfer to adult healthcare. Further research is now needed to analyze correlation between domain scores and success of transition.What is Known:•In adolescents with chronic conditions, the use of transition readiness questionnaires is recommended to propose individually tailored preparation for their transfer to adult healthcare.•However, no French-language questionnaire has been so far validated.What i...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Authors: Dietrich CF, Hollerweger A, Dirks K, Higginson A, Serra C, Calabrese E, Dong Y, Hausken T, Maconi G, Mihmanli I, Nürnberg D, Nylund K, Pallotta N, Ripollés T, Romanini L, Săftoiu A, Sporea I, Wüstner M, Maaser C, Gilja OH Abstract Transabdominal gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is unique in its capacity to examine the bowel non-invasively and in its physiological condition, including extra-intestinal features such as the splanchnic vessels, mesentery, omentum and lymph nodes- even at the bedside. Despite this, and its extensive documentation for its usefulness, it has only been fully im...
Source: Medical Ultrasonography - Category: Radiology Tags: Med Ultrason Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Cosmeri Rizzato1, Javier Torres2, Elena Kasamatsu3, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce2, Maria Mercedes Bravo4, Federico Canzian5 and Ikuko Kato6* 1Department of Translation Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy 2Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidades Médicas de Alta Especialidad Pediatría, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico 3Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, National University of Asunción, Asunción, Paraguay 4Grupo de Investigación en Biología del C&aacut...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Poshmaal Dhar1 and Julie McAuley2* 1Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia The family of cell surface (cs-) mucins are constitutively expressed at the cell surface by nearly all epithelial cells, beneath the gel-mucin layer. All cs-mucin family members have structural features that enable them to act as a releasable decoy barrier to mucosal pathogens, by providing ligands for pathogen binding and the ability to shed the bound extracellular domain. Due ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Microorganisms are involved in many life activities, and affect their surrounding environment and other organisms. Microorganisms play important roles in human heath, crop growth, livestock farming, environmental management, industrial chemical production and food production. In the 19th century, people first observed microbes using microscopes and began to study them. However, the development of high-throughput sequencing technology has led to generation of large amounts of microbial related data. As a result, machine-learning methods are now being applied to microbiological research. Here, we discuss the curr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions The concept of osteoimmunology is aging well, almost 20 years since the term was coined. This way of interpreting bone and the immune system has been steadily providing new insights about how the two of them operate and cooperate. As an example, the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in promoting osteoclastogenesis, and the many parallelisms between immune cells and osteoclasts have proved crucial to understand the biology of these giant bone-eating cells. Intriguingly, the control mechanisms between bone and the immune system are complex, tightly interconnected, and involve many players. The underlying comple...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Smith Etareri Evivie1,2†, Amro Abdelazez1,3, Bailiang Li1†, Xin Bian4, Wan Li1, Jincheng Du1, Guicheng Huo1* and Fei Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, College of Food Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 2Food Science and Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria 3Department of Dairy Microbiology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt 4Department of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin, China Foodborne pathogens are a ma...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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