Glial Cells: Role of the Immune Response in Ischemic Stroke

Ischemic stroke, which accounts for 75–80% of all strokes, is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The post-stroke immune response has recently emerged as a new breakthrough target in the treatment strategy for ischemic stroke. Glial cells, including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, are the primary components of the peri-infarct environment in the central nervous system (CNS) and have been implicated in post-stroke immune regulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that glial cells exert beneficial and detrimental effects during ischemic stroke. Microglia, which survey CNS homeostasis and regulate innate immune responses, are rapidly activated after ischemic stroke. Activated microglia release inflammatory cytokines that induce neuronal tissue injury. By contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors secreted by alternatively activated microglia are beneficial for recovery after ischemic stroke. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in ischemic stroke contribute to limiting brain injury and re-establishing CNS homeostasis. However, glial scarring hinders neuronal reconnection and extension. Neuroinflammation affects the demyelination and remyelination of oligodendrocytes. Myelin-associated antigens released from oligodendrocytes activate peripheral T cells, thereby resulting in the autoimmune response. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which can differentiate into oligodendrocytes, follow an ischemic stroke and...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study delves into the mechanisms by which a short period of fasting can accelerate wound healing. Fasting triggers many of the same cellular stress responses, such as upregulated autophagy, as occur during the practice of calorie restriction. It isn't exactly the same, however, so it is always worth asking whether any specific biochemistry observed in either case does in fact occur in both situations. In particular, the period of refeeding following fasting appears to have beneficial effects that are distinct from those that occur while food is restricted. Multiple forms of therapeutic fasting have been repor...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Neurological involvement in MM encompasses a myriad of variants and while the clinical setting varies from one patient to another, an underlining neoplasia should be evaluated in suspected patients. PMID: 32239096 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - Category: General Medicine Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research
Discussion: The above data should prompt neurologists, cardiologists and family doctors to try to detect AF as a risk factor for ischemic stroke which worsens patient prognosis, prolongs hospital stay and contributes to increase in mortality, especially when more effective drug treatment is currently possible. PMID: 32241245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study estimated the number of stroke patients undergoing CTA for suspected LVO and those eligible for thrombectomy in relation to the population. Numbers were essentially the same throughout the week, and during office and on-call hours. Our data can be used to make adequate staffing plans.
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reflect that psychosocial factors, such as the approach of the last day of the month override the intrinsic effect of disturbances of the circadian rhythm on stroke incidence. PMID: 32241570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
Authors: Duan Z, Huang X, Gao J, Hu T, Liu X, Xiao L, Huang F, Sun R, Zhu W, Zhou Z, Liu X PMID: 32233711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Interventional Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Interv Neuroradiol Source Type: research
Resumo A doen ça de Fabry é definida como uma doença rara de depósito lisossomal ligada ao cromossomo X que apresenta sintomas multissistêmicos, incluindo comprometimento vascular com eventos trombóticos. Paciente do sexo feminino, 57 anos, com diagnóstico de doença de Fabry há 11 anos, apresentava hiper idrose, hipoacusia e angioqueratoma nas mãos. Na história patológica pregressa, relatou episódio de acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico prévio aos 40 anos de idade e trombose arterial crônica agudizada em ...
Source: Jornal Vascular Brasileiro - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
AbstractThe benefits and risks of acute reperfusion therapy (RT) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remain uncertain in older patients, especially in nonagenarians. We aimed to assess the impact of RT in this population. Single-center retrospective cohort study comparing patients  ≥ 90 years old admitted to a Stroke Unit (2008–2018) with AIS, submitted or not to RT [intravenous thrombolysis(IVT), mechanical thrombectomy(MT) or both]. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital complications and 3-month outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was 3-month “favorable o utcome”, defined as mo...
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
Acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) have severe symptoms and poor prognosis. Early recognition of these patients in prehospital setting contributes to rapid triage to comprehensive stroke centers with endovascular therapy conditions. We aimed to develop a simple and efficient scale to identify LVO and compare with other published scales.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Paradoxical embolism refers to a potential condition in which an embolus arising from a venous source crosses into the systemic circulation through a right-to-left cardiac shunt causing an arterial embolism.A 39-year-old woman carrier of a central venous catheter (CVC) without evident risk factors for stroke, developed an acute right homonymous hemianopia during hemodialysis. On neuroimaging, an infarct in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery was demonstrated. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and a large fluctuating thrombus in the right atrium on the tip of the CVC, thu...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Clinical Short Communication Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Brain | Environmental Health | Ischemic Stroke | Neurology | Stroke