The Role of Gut Microbiota and Environmental Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Pathogenesis

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is regarded as an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency resulting from destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The incidence rates of T1D have increased worldwide. Over the past decades, progress has been made in understanding the complexity of the immune response and its role in T1D pathogenesis, however, the trigger of T1D autoimmunity remains unclear. The increasing incidence rates, immigrant studies, and twin studies suggest that environmental factors play an important role and the trigger cannot simply be explained by genetic predisposition. Several research initiatives have identified environmental factors that potentially contribute to the onset of T1D autoimmunity and the progression of disease in children/young adults. More recently, the interplay between gut microbiota and the immune system has been implicated as an important factor in T1D pathogenesis. Although results often vary between studies, broad compositional and diversity patterns have emerged from both longitudinal and cross-sectional human studies. T1D patients have a less diverse gut microbiota, an increased prevalence of Bacteriodetes taxa and an aberrant metabolomic profile compared to healthy controls. In this comprehensive review, we present the data obtained from both animal and human studies focusing on the large longitudinal human studies. These studies are particularly valuable in elucidating the environmental factors that lead to aberrant gut microbiota com...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of insulin production on immune system after the onset of diabetes, and we showed that the duration of honeymoon period could be related to the onset of other autoimmune conditions. For this retrospective study, 159 children aged between 11 and 18 years with type 1 DM were eligible. They have been diagnosed diabetes at least 10 years ago and use exogenous insulin. Our results showed that younger age at the onset of Type 1 DM in children, predicts Celiac Disease. Female sex and low HCO3 levels at the onset of DM had a high predictive value on patients who did not experience ...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
AbstractType 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease destroying the insulin-producing beta cells. Recently, stem cell therapy has been tested to treat T1D. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal and intravenous infusion of multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) in an experimental model of diabetes, induced by multiple injections of Streptozotocin (STZ). The adipose tissue-derived MSC and MSC-CM were isolated from C57Bl/6 male mice and characterized. Later, MSC and MSC-CM were injected intraperitoneally or intravenously into mice. Th...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease mediated by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, the emergence of high-throughput sequencing has allowed us to investigate the role of gut microbiota in the development of T1D. Significant changes in the composition of gut microbiome, also termed dysbiosis, have been found in subjects with clinical or preclinical T1D. However, whether the dysbiosis is a cause or an effect of the disease remains unclear. Currently, increasing evidence has supported a causal link between intestine microflora and T1D development. The current review will f...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Yap YA, Mariño E Abstract Diet-microbiota related inflammatory conditions such as obesity, autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and gut infections have become a stigma in Western societies and developing nations. This book chapter examines the most relevant pre-clinical and clinical studies about diet-gut microbiota approaches as an alternative therapy for diabetes. We also discuss what we and others have extensively investigated- the power of dietary short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) technology that naturally targets the gut microbiota as an alternativ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In this study, five compounds were selected based on a 3D similarity searching methodology and subsequently screened ex vivo on the Kv1.3 channel. The screening resulted in two compounds inhibiting the Kv1.3 channel, of which TVS-12 was the most potent compound, while TVS-06 -although less potent- showed an excellent selectivity for Kv1.3. For both compounds the mechanism of action was investigated by an electrophysiological characterization on the Kv1.3 channel and three Kv1.3 mutants, designed to resemble the pore region of Kv1.2 channels. Structurally, the presence of a benzene ring and/or an oxane ring seems to cause a...
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research
Hairy, scary, funny looking or pretty cool. The beasts in the Harry Potter universe are quite the diverse bunch with unique abilities and qualities. Just like new digital health tech targeted to fight autoimmune diseases or for the main part: their symptoms. Source: Warner Bros. Framestore The common ground for completely different illnesses like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis is an immune system disfunction. Immune cells and mechanisms target the body’s own cells and structures, deconstructing it bit by bit and inducing inflammation. An estim...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Biotechnology Future of Medicine chatbot diabetes digital health sleep optimization chronic pain chronic illness skin coronavirus autoimmune disease Source Type: blogs
This study aimed to investigate the significance of zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) in identifying and characterizing autoimmune ‐mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Japanese subjects.MethodsZnT8A were determined in 324 patients with T1D, 191 phenotypic type 2 diabetes (T2D), and 288 healthy control subjects using bridging ‐type enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in addition to autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and insulinoma‐associated antigen‐2 (IA‐2A).ResultsWe set a cut ‐off value of 10.0U/mL, and twenty‐five percent of the T1D patients had ZnT8A levels exceeding this l...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated an absence of clear association between HPV vaccines and autoimmune and other rare diseases. The review also highlights the need for more systematic collaborations to monitor rare safety adverse events.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
T1DM (type 1 diabetes mellitus), which results from the irreversible elimination of beta-cells mediated by autoreactive T cells, is defined as an autoimmune disease. It is widely accepted that T1DM is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, but the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. To date, more than 50 genetic risk regions contributing to the pathogenesis of T1DM have been identified by GWAS (genome-wide association studies). Notably, more than 60% of the identified candidate genes are expressed in islets and beta-cells, which makes it plausible that these genes act at the be...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Vaccines have been traditionally developed with the presumption that they exert identical immunogenicity regardless of target population and that they provide protection solely against their target pathogen. However, it is increasingly appreciated that vaccines can have off-target effects and that vaccine immunogenicity can vary substantially with demographic factors such as age and sex. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), represents a key example of these concepts. BCG vaccines are manufactured under different conditions across the globe generati...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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