Systemic and Target-Site Pharmacokinetics of Antiparasitic Agents

AbstractAbout one-sixth of the world ’s population is affected by a neglected tropical disease as defined by the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control. Parasitic diseases comprise most of the neglected tropical disease list and they are causing enormous amounts of disability, morbidity, mortality, and healthcare co sts worldwide. The burden of disease of the top five parasitic diseases has been estimated to amount to a total 23 million disability-adjusted life-years. Despite the massive health and economic impact, most drugs currently used for the treatment of parasitic diseases have been developed decades ago and insufficient novel drugs are being developed. The current review provides a compilation of the systemic and target-site pharmacokinetics of established antiparasitic drugs. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs allows for the examination and possibly optimization of existing dosing schemes. Many symptoms of parasitic diseases are caused by parasites residing in different host tissues. Penetration of the antiparasitic drug into these tissues, the target site of infection, is a prerequisite for a successful treatment of the disease. Therefore, for the examination and improvement of established dosing regimens, not only the plasma but also the tissue pharmacokinetics of the drug have to be considered. For the current paper, almost 7000 scientific articles were identified and screened from which 429 were reviewed in detail and 100 we...
Source: Clinical Pharmacokinetics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conclusions/SignificanceThe study results provide a rich insight into important outcomes for CL treatments, as well as related topics, from the perspective of a diverse patient population. Among the outcomes identified, we argue that those related to quality of life as well as recurrence should be included to a greater extent for assessment in clinical trials, and discuss the suitability of measurement instruments such as the Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI). Interviews also point out the potential need to address concerns related to parasitological cure or scar formation, such as social stigmatization and disabili...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. Tungiasis is probably the most neglected of all Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). It occurs in South America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa and affects marginalized populations where people live in extreme poverty. In endemic communities the prevalence can be up to 30% in general population and 85% in children. Over time, chronic pathology develops characterized by hyperkeratosis, edema around the nail rim, fissures, ulcers, deformation and loss of nails. This leads to a pattern of di...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
AbstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode worms of the genusSchistosoma. The transmission cycle involves human (or other mammalian) water contact with surface water contaminated by faeces or urine, as well as specific freshwater snails acting as intermediate hosts. The main disease-causing species areS. haematobium,S. mansoni andS. japonicum. According to the World Health Organisation, over 250 million people are infected worldwide, leading to considerable morbidity and the estimated loss of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a likely underestimated figure. Sch...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Infection by the parasite Toxoplasma, which affects about 33% of world population, is associated with an increased risk of several mental health disorders, the most strongly with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether schizophrenia is associated with this infection the most strongly, or whether this association has just been the most intensively studied for historical reasons. We used the data from 6,367 subjects tested for toxoplasmosis who took part in an internet survey to search for associations of these infections with 24 mental health disorders and evidence of otherwise impaired mental health. The typical symptom assoc...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Gabriel Á, Valério-Bolas A, Palma-Marques J, Mourata-Gonçalves P, Ruas P, Dias-Guerreiro T, Santos-Gomes G Abstract This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive outline of the immune response displayed against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the more common zoonotic infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Although of polymorphic clinical presentation, classically CL is characterized by leishmaniotic lesions on the face and extremities of the patients, which can be ulcerative, and even after healing can lead to permanent injuries and disfigurement, affecting ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Abstract Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a major cause of chronic morbidity and disability, and premature death. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, and esophageal varices, whose rupture may cause bleeding and death. We review currently available abdominal imaging modalities and describe their basic principles, strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness in the assessment of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS). Advanced imaging methods are presented that could be of interest for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis evaluation b...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: With reference to in vitro antifilarial studies, there is evidence that natural and synthetic products can serve as basic scaffolds for the development of antifilarial agents. The optimization of the most potent antifilarial compounds can be further performed, follow by their in vivo studies. PMID: 31800381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
We cover a lot of news and announcements about digital health technologies to provide context for you. Even within The Medical Futurist team, there are favorite technologies and trends. And we thought it would be time to share the technologies we’re excited about! With advancements in exoskeleton technology, A.I.’s ever-increasing importance in healthcare and technologies like 5G and quantum computing soon going mainstream, there’s much to be excited about! Without further ado, let’s jump in! 1. Quantum Computing: faster, cheaper and safer Late last month, Google claimed “quantum suprema...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine digital health Healthcare technology digital technology Source Type: blogs
This report, based on updated health ministry data, describes progress to eradicate dracunculiasis during January 2018-June 2019 and updates previous reports (2,4,5). With only five countries currently affected by dracunculiasis (Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan), achievement of eradication is within reach, but it is challenged by civil unrest, insecurity, and lingering epidemiologic and zoologic questions. PMID: 31671082 [PubMed - in process]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
tti L Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) form a group of diseases that are strongly associated with poverty, flourish in impoverished environments, and thrive best in tropical areas, where they tend to present overlap. They comprise several diseases, and the symptoms vary dramatically from disease to disease, often causing from extreme pain, and untold misery that anchors populations to poverty, permanent disability, and death. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide; mostly in poor populations living in tropical and subtropical climates. In this review, several complementary in silico approaches...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
More News: Disability | Drugs & Pharmacology | International Medicine & Public Health | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology | Pharmaceuticals | WHO