A comparison of phenylketonuria with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Do markedly different aetiologies deliver common phenotypes?

A comparison of phenylketonuria with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Do markedly different aetiologies deliver common phenotypes? Brain Res Bull. 2013 Oct 16; Authors: Stevenson M, McNaughton N Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-defined metabolic disorder arising from a mutation that disrupts phenylalanine metabolism and so produces a variety of neural changes indirectly. Severe cognitive impairment can be prevented by dietary treatment; however, residual symptoms may be reported. These residual symptoms appear to overlap a more prevalent childhood disorder: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the aetiology of ADHD is a vast contrast to PKU: it seems to arise from a complex combination of genes; and it has a substantial environmental component. We ask whether these two disorders result from two vastly different genotypes that converge on a specific core phenotype that includes similar dysfunctions of Gray's (Gray, 1982) Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), coupled with other disorder-specific dysfunctions. If so, we believe comparison of the commonalities will allow greater understanding of the neuropsychology of both disorders. We review in detail the aetiology, treatment, neural pathology, cognitive deficits and electrophysiological abnormalities of PKU; and compare this with selected directly matching aspects of ADHD. The biochemical and neural pathologies of PKU and ADHD are quite distinct in their causes and detail; ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Related Links:

The ability to start and delay a task differs significantly between kids with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children, new research suggests.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news
ConclusionsThis study suggests that prenatal stress may be associated with ASD and ADHD; however, several limitations in the reviewed literature should be noted including significant heterogeneity and there is a need for carefully controlled future studies in this area.
Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The assessed form of interventions improves the functioning of parents of children with ADHD. PMID: 31317967 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Psychiatria Polska - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Pol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Bipolar disorder is common among primary care patients presenting with depression; it is often treated exclusively in primary care. Clinicians should be alert for symptoms of bipolar disorder in undiagnosed patients, know what symptoms probabilistically suggest bipolar versus unipolar depression, have expertise in providing ongoing treatment to diagnosed patients, and be knowledgeable about managing common medication-related side effects and comorbidities. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical. PMID: 31311335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate a significant prevalence of parents' complaints of attention problems and hyperactivity in non-adherent to treatment and intellectually low performing patients with PKU. PMID: 30375370 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
This study aims to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a sample of PKU patients from Southern Brazil. Patients were prospectively assessed by clinical interviews, neurological examination, and application of the MTA-SNAP-IV scales for patients aged 5 –17 years and the Adult Self-Report Scale for patients over 17 years. Thirty-one patients (mean age = 17.4; early diagnosis = 27) were followed. Patients with ADHD and younger than 17 years had a median Phe in the last 6 months of life higher than those without the diagnosis of ADHD (A DHD patients = 617.1&nbs...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered i...
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
RESUMO O Mismatch Negativity (MMN) é um potencial cortical que ocorre em resposta a uma mudança de um estímulo acústico em meio a uma sequência de repetidos estímulos, o que reflete a capacidade do cérebro em discriminar o som de modo passivo, ou seja, sem a necessidade de atenção do indivíduo ao estímulo sonoro. Diante di sso, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão descritiva sobre o MMN, a fim de identificar a sua aplicabilidade em crianças e adolescentes nos últimos cinco anos. Para isso, realizou-se uma busca nas ...
Source: Revista CEFAC - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research
Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established.
Source: Value in Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: although participants obtained normative scores in Intellectual Quotient, they presented difficulties in the performance of the reading and writing subtests. Additional studies are necessary to really understand the academic needs of individuals with phenylketonuria.
Source: Revista CEFAC - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research
More News: ADHD | Brain | Environmental Health | Genetics | Hyperactivity | Neurology | Nutrition | Pathology | Phenylketonuria