New pieces added to the molecular puzzle of rheumatoid arthritis

(Walter and Eliza Hall Institute) researchers have revealed new details about how joint inflammation evolves in rheumatoid arthritis, and the cells that prolong the inflammatory attack.The team pinpointed an unexpected source of the inflammatory protein GM-CSF in rheumatoid arthritis, and explained how GM-CSF signals to prolong joint inflammation.These discoveries could indicate potential new therapeutic targets for reducing joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, and could potentially reduce inflammation in other autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Abstract Interleukin (IL)-37 belongs to the IL-1 cytokine family. It has anti-inflammatory effects on numerous autoimmune diseases such as asthma, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mechanistically, IL-37 plays an anti-inflammatory role by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors in two ways: binding extracellular receptors IL-18R or transferring into the nucleus with Smad3. IBD is a kind of idiopathic intestinal inflammatory disease with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Recent researches had proved that...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
In this study, five compounds were selected based on a 3D similarity searching methodology and subsequently screened ex vivo on the Kv1.3 channel. The screening resulted in two compounds inhibiting the Kv1.3 channel, of which TVS-12 was the most potent compound, while TVS-06 -although less potent- showed an excellent selectivity for Kv1.3. For both compounds the mechanism of action was investigated by an electrophysiological characterization on the Kv1.3 channel and three Kv1.3 mutants, designed to resemble the pore region of Kv1.2 channels. Structurally, the presence of a benzene ring and/or an oxane ring seems to cause a...
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research
Hairy, scary, funny looking or pretty cool. The beasts in the Harry Potter universe are quite the diverse bunch with unique abilities and qualities. Just like new digital health tech targeted to fight autoimmune diseases or for the main part: their symptoms. Source: Warner Bros. Framestore The common ground for completely different illnesses like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis is an immune system disfunction. Immune cells and mechanisms target the body’s own cells and structures, deconstructing it bit by bit and inducing inflammation. An estim...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Biotechnology Future of Medicine chatbot diabetes digital health sleep optimization chronic pain chronic illness skin coronavirus autoimmune disease Source Type: blogs
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionally conserved, single-stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by disrupting translation. MiRNAs are key players in variety of biological processes that regulate the differentiation, development and activation of immune cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. The disruption and dysfunction of miRNAs can perturb the immune response, stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines and initiate the production of autoantibodies, and contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE), rheuma...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
T helper (Th) 17 cells are a subtype of CD4 T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of retinoic acid-receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt transcription factor, encoded by gene Rorc. These cells are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune inflammatory disorders as well as in the clearance of extracellular infections. The main function of Th17 cells is the production of cytokine called interleukin (IL)-17A. This review highlights recent advances in mechanisms regulating transcription of IL-17A. In particular, we described the lineage defining transcription factor RORγt and other factors that reg...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The axonal guidance molecules, semaphorins, have been described to function both physiologically and pathologically outside of the nervous system. In this review, we focus on the vertebrate semaphorins found in classes 3 through 7 and their roles in vascular development and autoimmune diseases. Recent studies indicate that while some of these vertebrate semaphorins promote angiogenesis, others have an angiostatic function. Since some semaphorins are also expressed by different immune cells and are known to modulate immune responses, they have been implicated in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid ar...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The importance of the kynurenine pathway in normal immune system function has led to an appreciation of its possible contribution to autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity exerts a protective function, limiting the severity of experimental arthritis, whereas deletion or inhibition exacerbates the symptoms. Other chronic disorder with an inflammatory component, such as atherosclerosis, are also suppressed by IDO activity. It is suggested that this overall anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by a change in the relative production or activity of Th17 and regulatory T c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Ingawale DK, Mandlik SK Abstract Inflammation is a physiological intrinsic host response to injury meant for removal of noxious stimuli and maintenance of homeostasis. It is a defensive body mechanism that involves immune cells, blood vessels and molecular mediators of inflammation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroidal hormones responsible for regulation of homeostatic and metabolic functions of body. Synthetic GCs are the most useful anti-inflammatory drugs used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergies, multiple sclerosis, te...
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
Abstract Oxidative stress is the off-balance of antioxidants and free radicals. All kinds of disease and disorders give rise to oxidative damage including autoimmune diseases. An autoimmune disorder is a pathological condition characterized by the breakdown of self-tolerance of the immune system in the body. Immunological processes against tissues and organs leading to enhanced oxidative stress and in turn, misbalance of oxidative stress aggravates the pathobiology of the disease. Highly reactive nature of free radicals, for example, hydroxyl, superoxide ions, alter DNA, protein, and lipids in the body which augme...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested a link between vitamin D deficiency and the development of various autoimmune diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis or systemic lupus erythematosus. More recently, such a link has been also proposed for autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD). This is a relatively rare and potentially life-threatening, organ-specific group of inflammatory skin diseases characterized by the presence of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies against various molecules present in desmosomes (in pemphigu...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
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