Pleural fluid lactate as a point-of-care adjunct diagnostic aid to distinguish tuberculous and complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions during initial thoracentesis: Potential use in a tuberculosis endemic setting

Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Respiratory InvestigationAuthor(s): Sze Shyang Kho, Swee Kim Chan, Mei Ching Yong, Hui Min Cheah, YC Gary Lee, Siew Teck Tie
Source: Respiratory Investigation - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

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The development of rapid and accurate diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB), which decreases the time of treatment initiation is an important strategy to control the TB epidemic. The WHO recommended Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, USA) is an automated cartridge-based, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that has been proven to reduce time to treatment initiation in TB patients (Boehme et al., 2011, Calligaro et al., 2017) by detecting the presence of TB and drug resistance to rifampicin (RIFR) in sputum samples within 2  hrs (Theron et al., 2011).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study foreshadows the need for prompt and accurate microbiological diagnosis along with a high index of suspicion from the clinicians in countries which are endemic for both melioidosis and tuberculosis, thus ameliorating the irrational anti-tuberculosis treatment.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Credit: UNBy Ifeanyi Nsofor and Adaeze OrehABUJA, Mar 30 2020 (IPS) As COVID-19 surges globally and leaves fear and panic in its wake, global efforts are underway to find a cure. Yet, the same level of response is lacking for several other infectious diseases that kill millions annually. These kinds of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a broad group of communicable diseases which affect more than two billion people and cost developing economies billions of dollars every year. Lassa Fever is an example and is endemic in Nigeria and other West African countries such as Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Source Type: news
In this study, we evaluated NK cell phenotypic and functional profiles in QuantiFERON-TB (QFT)+ and QFT− adults in a TB endemic setting in Kisumu, Kenya, and compared their NK cell responses to those of Mtb-naïve healthy adult controls in the U.S. We used flow cytometry to define the phenotypic profile of NK cells and identified distinct CD56dim NK cell phenotypes that differentiated the Kenyan and U.S. groups. Additionally, among Kenyan participants, NK cells from QFT+ individuals with latent Mtb infection (LTBI) were characterized by significant downregulation of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 and the...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to (1) develop a questionnaire to identify suspected paragonimiasis-endemic foci, (2) describe the epidemiology of paragonimiasis, and (3) evaluate Ziehl-Nielsen Staining technique (ZNS) in detecting Paragonimus ova. The questionnaire, which municipal health officers filled out, was based on proposed site inclusion criteria utilized in the integrated tuberculosis (TB)-paragonimiasis surveillance and control project. Newly deployed medical technologists in Zamboanga Region underwent training, which included laboratory diagnosis of paragonimiasis using preserved and fresh specimens and an integrated tub...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
Swedish National tuberculosis (TB) guidelines recommend screening of active and latent TB (LTBI) among pregnant women (PW) from high-endemic countries or with previous exposure to possibly improve early detection and treatment. We evaluated cascade of care of a newly introduced TB screening programme of pregnant women in Stockholm county in 2016–2017. The algorithm included clinical data and Quantiferon (QFT) at the Maternal Health Care clinics and referral for specialist care upon positive test or TB symptoms. About 29 000 HIV-negative pregnant women were registered yearly, of whom 11% originated from high-endemic c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a global health problem estimated to affect at least one out of every four people in the world [1]. Recent changes in sociodemographic paradigms during the latter part of the 20th century, have made of LTBI an important clinical and socioeconomic challenge, particularly in developing countries [2,3]. Incidence of LTBI varies widely between geographical regions, ranging from 3.3 and 11.9 cases per 100,000 individuals in the United States and the European Union, respectively, to 100 cases per 100,000 individuals in Africa [4,5,6].
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
This playground just outside the Slovak capital, Bratislava, has been sealed off to stop people spreading the virus. Similar measures are in place in cities and towns across Europe, which is now the epicentre of the virus's spread. Credit: Ed Holt/IPSBy Ed HoltBRASTISLAVA , Mar 16 2020 (IPS) Governments in wealthy, first world countries must not ignore the plight of poorer nations battling the coronavirus or the disease will not be brought under control, global development experts have said. As African nations slowly report growing numbers of cases, and more and more infections are registered in countries with endemic pove...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Aid Development & Aid Editors' Choice Europe Featured Global Global Governance Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Population Poverty & SDGs Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations Cor Source Type: news
In this report, we discuss an initially asymptomatic patient with a pre-employment chest radiograph that revealed cardiomegaly. An echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion. Medical workup was unable to determine secondary causes for effusion. Pericardiocentesis revealed milky-colored fluid with a high lymphocyte count, and a lymphoscintigraphy lymphangiogram revealed a leak into the pericardium and decreased flow through left iliac and left periaortic lymph nodes. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was treated conservatively with diet changes, pericardial drainage, and a pericardial window procedure. This type of ...
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research
World TB Day falls on March 24th each year, and it commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the microbial cause of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (WHO, 2020a,b,c). At the time of Professor Koch ’s announcement in Berlin, TB was an endemic in Europe and the Americas, and caused the death of one in every seven people (Wallstedt and Maeurer, 2015). Koch’s discovery opened the way towards diagnosing, treating and curing patients with TB. One hundred and twenty eight years later, according to the WHO Annual TB Report, an estimated 10 million people fell ill with TB ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
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