N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks in Outpatient Settings —Reply
In Reply Dr McDiarmid and colleagues comment on the design and conduct of our study, the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial (ResPECT). They note, and we agree, that a number of laboratory and simulated workplace studies have shown respirators to have superior performance compared with medical masks; however, the results of clinical trials have not been definitive. The complexities of delivering health care introduce behavioral factors that may influence the effectiveness of infection prevention measures, including adherence to procedures that have been shown in laboratory settings to optimize efficacy. ResPECT was designed as a pragmatic clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of N95 respirators with medical masks as worn by health care personnel who are exposed to patients with respiratory infections in outpatient clinical practice settings. Our goal was to assess the incidence of viral respiratory infection and illness among these frontline health care personnel using laboratory-confirmed and clinical end points. Cluster randomization was used to balance exposures and behavioral characteristics in the intervention groups. Precise quantification of exposures in terms of viral loads of particles was beyond the scope of the study. Despite limitations, we believe our study contributes valuable information to the body of literature about prevention of respiratory infections in clinical settings and calls attention to challenges that remain when implementing b...
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Saori Suzuki, Shintaro Shichinohe, Yasushi Itoh, Misako Nakayama, Hirohito Ishigaki, Yuya Mori, Ayako Ogata-Nakahara, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
The path to monetising influenza drug Avigan is littered with obstacles
Conditions: Influenza; Virus Intervention: Sponsors: Scripps Translational Science Institute; CareEvolution Healthcare Technology Recruiting
Conclusions Compared to non-sh ift workers, shift workers had a higher incidence rate of ILI/ARI that was partly mediated by poorer sleep quality. Therefore, it may be relevant for future research to focus on perceived sleep quality as an underlying mechanism in the relation between shift work and increased infection susceptibili ty.byLoef B, van der Beek AJ, Hulsegge G, van Baarle D, Proper KI. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3895
Influenza activity is falling in the United States, but hospitalization rates rose slightly, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Medscape Medical News
This report highlights some of the knowledge shared at the SPSASV.
(University of Michigan) Of the seven coronaviruses known to infect people, four cause common respiratory infections that are sharply seasonal and appear to transmit similarly to influenza, according to a new study by University of Michigan School of Public Health researchers.
harine E. Magor RIG-I plays an essential role in the duck innate immune response to influenza infection. RIG-I engages the critical adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) to activate the downstream signaling pathway. The influenza A virus non-structural protein PB1-F2 interacts with MAVS in human cells to inhibit interferon production. As duck and human MAVS share only 28% amino acid similarity, it is not known whether the influenza virus can similarly inhibit MAVS signaling in avian cells. Using confocal microscopy we show that MAVS and the constitutively active N-terminal end of duck RIG-I (2CARD) c...
Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infection. Using a mouse model of influenza A virus infection, we found that IFN- was one of the earliest responding type I IFNs after infection with H9N2, a low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus, whereas this early induction did not occur upon infection with the epidemic-causing H7N9 virus. IFN- efficiently suppressed the replication of various influenza viruses in cultured human lung cells, and chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 6 (CHD6) was the major effector for the antiviral activity of IFN-, but not for that of IFN-α or IFN-β. Th...