Norovirus detection in environmental samples in norovirus outbreaks in closed and semi-closed settings

ConclusionThe probability of virus detection is independent of the time between notification of the outbreak or symptom onset and sample collection. Our results suggest possible defects in cleaning protocols and disinfection in closed and semi-closed settings.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of p...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Hanisch FG, Aydogan C Abstract Norovirus infections belong to the most common causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide, and epidemic outbreaks are responsible for hundreds of thousands deaths annually. Strikingly, no antiviral treatment is available due to the difficulty in cultivating virions or in generating a vaccine, and due to the fact that their infection mechanisms are poorly understood. However, there is consent that noroviruses bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on their way through the digestive tract. The HBGA profiles vary individually, making people more or less susceptible to differe...
Source: Nestlee Nutrition Institute Workshop Series - Category: Nutrition Tags: Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Source Type: research
Human noroviruses (NVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4), with new variants emerging every 2 to 4 years. Immunocompromised patients are hypothesized to be important reservoirs where new NV variants emerge. Here, we examined intra-host NV variants and assessed immune-driven NV evolution in chronically infected immunocompromised hosts. Three NV GII.4-positive samples were collected from the same patient in different clinical phases following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and had viral RNA concentrations of ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
A large number of students at a school in Guangzhou city developed a sudden onset of symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting. To help control the outbreak, we conducted an epidemiological investigation to determine ...
Source: BMC Public Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis are common in care homes for the elderly. Norovirus can cause these outbreaks, but diagnosis is frequently based solely on clinical characteristics. Our objective in thi...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to develop a high-efficient concentrated pretreatment method for reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection. Based on the existing ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 standard (ISO/TS 15216-2., 2013), four methods are compared for recovery of norovirus from spiked digestive tissue of oysters. A method is found to be the most efficient based on protease K method of increasing buffer volume and PEG precipitation method. The recovery rate and amplification efficiency approached 11.07±0.09% and 124.12±5.99%, respectively, being 7-fold that of the orig...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Currently, norovirus (NoV) is associated with one-fifth of all acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases worldwide. The NoV GII.17_2014 variant has been associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in several Asian count...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.P17-GII.17 (Kawasaki2014 variant) reportedly emerged in 2014 and caused gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. To clarify the evolution of both VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) regions of GII.P17-GII.17, we analyzed both global and novel Japanese strains detected during 2013–2017. Time-scaled phylogenetic trees revealed that the ancestral GII.17 VP1 region diverged around 1949, while the ancestral GII.P17 RdRp region diverged around 2010. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 and RdRp regions were estimated at ~2.7 × 10−3 and ~2.3 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequently occuring illnesses in children and adults worldwide. In February 2017, two AGE outbreaks occurred in two adjacent schools in Huzhou city, Zhenjiang province of China. We detected high percentages of recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 in one school and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in another school using next generation sequencing (NGS) and specific PCR. The results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GII.P16/GII.2, and suggest the need of further studies on whether CAV causes AGE. Keywords: acute gastroenteritis; norovirus; chicke...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
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