Learning and Executive Function Disorders in Children and Psychosis Risk at Adult-age

Conditions:   Schizophrenia;   Learning Disorders;   Executive Function Disorders Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Standardised semi-structured talk;   Diagnostic Test: Autistic spectre disorder screening;   Diagnostic Test: Anxiety measuring Sponsor:   Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials

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ConclusionAmong other demographic, clinical, and functional capacity variables, increased ASD symptoms emerged as a significant predictor of poorer social relationships and may therefore represent a key factor in predicting real-world social functioning in schizophrenia.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
The human insular cortex is a heterogeneous brain structure which plays an integrative role in guiding behavior. The cytoarchitectonic organization of the human insula has been investigated over the last century using postmortem brains but there has been little progress in noninvasivein vivo mapping of its microstructure and large-scale functional circuitry. Quantitative modeling of multi-shell diffusion MRI data from 413 participants revealed that human insula microstructure differs significantly across subdivisions that serve distinct cognitive and affective functions. Insular microstructural organization was mirrored in...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: For the majority of the physicians surveyed, psychiatry represented a public health priority, and their prioritising provides a probable explanation for their positive perception of their role in the management of mental disorders. However, we went on to observe that a number of difficulties constituted obstacles to their role in management of mental disorders and induced them to refer their patients to psychiatrists. Our analysis highlighted the impact of continuing education on physicians' attitudes and the interest of collaboration between practitioners. Efforts in university teaching and continuous educatio...
Source: Revue d Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique Source Type: research
Empathy, broadly defined as the ability to understand the other and to share others’ emotions, motivates prosocial behavior and underlies successful interpersonal relations. Dysfunctions in this ability may cause fundamental difficulties in social communication. Empathy has been measured in various ways, from self-report questionnaires to laboratory objective performance tests. Empathic accuracy (EA), i.e., the ability to accurately empathize, is measured using more complex and ecological paradigms, such as asking participants to infer filmed interactions, or having people narrate personal emotional stories then asse...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
As an integrator of molecular pathways, mTOR has been associated with diseases including neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as autism, schizophrenia, and Huntington ’s disease. An important brain area involved in all these diseases is the striatum. However, the mechanisms behind how mTOR is involved in striatal physiology and its relative role in distinct neuronal populations in these striatal-related diseases still remain to be clarified.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research
The advent and application of high-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular neurobiology of diverse psychiatric disorders. Whole-genome sequencing, which targets the coding regions of the genome, and whole-exome sequencing are being applied to study multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette ’s disorder, among others [(1–3); https://schema.broadinstitute.org]. These studies have demonstrated a role for ultrarare, deleterious, frequently de novo variation in each disorder, and h...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Authors: Shi LJ, Zhou HY, Wang Y, Shen YM, Fang YM, He YQ, Ou JJ, Li HB, Luo XR, Cheung EFC, Pantelis C, Chan RCK Abstract Empathy refers to the ability to understand other people's feelings and reacting emotionally to others. Impaired empathy has been reported in both individuals with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite overlaps, few studies have directly examined the neural mechanisms of impaired empathy in these two clinical groups. We used resting-state fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of empathic functioning in adolescents with ASD (N = 11), early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) (N = ...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder, are common conditions that arise as a result of complex and heterogeneous combinations of genetic and environmental factors. In contrast to childhood neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism and intellectual disability, there are no clinical practice guidelines for applying genetic testing in the context of these conditions. But genetic counseling and genetic testing are not synonymous, and people who live with psychiatric disorders and their family members are often interested in what psychiatric genetic counseling can offer. Furt...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Genetic Counseling: Clinical Practice and Ethical Considerations PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to further elucidate the role of ngn-1/neurogenin in nervous system development and to identify its downstream transcriptional targets, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for this work. We found that ngn-1 is required for axon outgrowth, nerve ring architecture, and neuronal cell fate specification. We also showed that ngn-1 may have roles in neuroblast migration and epithelial integrity during embryonic development. Using RNA sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis, we identified eight transcription factors (hlh-34/NPAS1, unc-42/PROP1, ceh-17/PHOX2A, lim-4/LHX6, ...
Source: G3: Genes Genomes Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Investigations Source Type: research
Abstract Six articles in the June 2020 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry address the overall construct of cognition. These articles have a broad connection to cognition, which is itself a broad concept. From the experimental psychology perspective, cognition is the set of processes associated with attending, learning, knowing, and remembering. From the clinical perspective, a number of neuropsychiatric conditions are defined by the presence of cognitive impairment, with onset ranging from childhood, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability, to later life, such as demen...
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research
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