Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 242: Measles Vaccines Designed for Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Activation

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 242: Measles Vaccines Designed for Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Activation Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12020242 Authors: Busch Kubon Mayer Pidelaserra-Martí Albert Hoyler Heidbuechel Stephenson Lichty Osen Eichmüller Jäger Ungerechts Engeland Priming and activation of CD8+ T cell responses is crucial to achieve anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. Live attenuated measles vaccine strains have been used successfully for immunization for decades and are currently investigated in trials of oncolytic virotherapy. The available reverse genetics systems allow for insertion of additional genes, including heterologous antigens. Here, we designed recombinant measles vaccine vectors for priming and activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. For proof-of-concept, we used cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines specific for the melanoma-associated differentiation antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), or the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. We generated recombinant measles vaccine vectors with TRP-2 and OVA epitope cassette variants for expression of the full-length antigen or the respective immunodominant CD8+ epitope, with additional variants mediating secretion or proteasomal degradation of the epitope. We show that these recombinant measles virus vectors mediate varying levels of MHC class I (MHC-I)-restricted epitope presentation, leading to activation of cognate CTLs, as indicated by se...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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By Inge KaulBERLIN, Germany, Apr 3 2020 (IPS) My recent study on “The G20@10: Time to shift gears” 1 shows that, during the past decade, the main joint, collective action of the G20 has been to issue communiqués and other types of statements. As a group, G20 Leaders have expressed concern about all kinds of challenges, recommitted themselves to goals already agreed in other multilateral meetings or –even repeatedly – stated in earlier G20 communiqués. They have also lauded other entities for actions they have taken or asked others, such as the IMF, OECD, the World Bank or other inter...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Economy & Trade Featured Global Global Governance Headlines Health Inequity TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Neal Browning, a volunteer in a Covid-19 vaccine trial, explains to CNN's Anderson Cooper and Dr. Sanjay Gupta why he felt it was important to participate in the experimental trial.
Source: CNN.com - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
In this study, the oncolytic potential of the attenuated vaccine strain Leningrad-16 (L-16) of MV was evaluated in a panel of human metastatic melanoma cell lines. The L-16 measles virus was shown to replicate within melanoma cells mediating direct cell killing of tumor cells, although all melanoma cell lines varied in regard to their ability to respond to L-16 MV infection, as revealed by the different pattern of the Interferon Stimulated Gene expression, cytokine release and mechanisms of cell death. Furthermore, the statistically significant L-16 measles virus related tumor growth inhibition was demonstrated in a melano...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Jassy Mary S. Lazarte1, Kim D. Thompson2 and Tae Sung Jung1* 1Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, United Kingdom Teleost fish, as with other vertebrates, rely on their innate immune system as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. A very important characteristic of the innate immune response is its ability to recognize conserved molecular structures, such as viral dsRNA and ssRNA. Mda5 is one of the three pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recogn...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
As a pharmacist, Kathy James considers herself well educated about the importance of getting regular cancer screenings. Even though the 55-year-old had no history of cancer in her family, she never skipped her regular mammograms, and she gave herself regular breast exams. So she was dumbfounded when, during one of those self-exams in May 2017, she felt a marble-size lump in her left breast. A visit to the doctor confirmed it. “The radiologist came in with his hands in his pockets and looked down and said, ‘It doesn’t look good,'” James says. After a biopsy, James and her husband learned she had meta...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized breast cancer news Frontiers of Medicine Source Type: news
Discussion The nail matrix covers the area of the nail plate, and extends proximally in a crescent moon shape with the edges of the crescent extending proximally and inferiorly toward the underlying bone. The nail matrix is a multilayered epithelium that physiologically produces keratinization and gives rise to the nail plate. The distal matrix forms the lower 2/3s of the nail plate and the proximal matrix forms the upper 1/3 of the nail plate. the thickness of the nail plate is proportion to the matrix’s thickness. The nail plate’s free edge contour follows the shape of the nail’s lunula. Melanocytes occ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Immunotherapy through clinical trials is becoming a promising treatment option for some mesothelioma patients. Checkpoint inhibitor drugs, such as Keytruda, already have U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval as first-line treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), edging immunotherapy drugs closer to becoming a viable second-line therapy for other thoracic cancers, including pleural mesothelioma. However, overall response to immune therapies remains relatively low. Researchers across the country are striving to enhance responsiveness to immunotherapy drugs. Leading that trend is viroimmunotherapy, or t...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Biomedicines checkpoint blockade Checkpoint inhibitor drugs clinical trials for mesothelioma Dr. Alexander Dash Dr. Manish Patel FDA approval Keytruda immune response cancer immunotherapy response mesothelioma intratumoral injections k Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: Type I interferon response is the main determinant for the sensitivity or resistance of melanoma to oncolytic MV infection. This will have to be taken into account for future clinical trials on oncolytic MV. PMID: 28042780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Gene Therapy - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Gene Ther Source Type: research
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