Translational Genomics in Neurocritical Care: a Review

AbstractTranslational genomics represents a broad field of study that combines genome and transcriptome-wide studies in humans and model systems to refine our understanding of human biology and ultimately identify new ways to treat and prevent disease. The approaches to translational genomics can be broadly grouped into two methodologies, forward and reverse genomic translation. Traditional (forward) genomic translation begins with model systems and aims at using unbiased genetic associations in these models to derive insight into biological mechanisms that may also be relevant in human disease. Reverse genomic translation begins with observations made through human genomic studies and refines these observations through follow-up studies using model systems. The ultimate goal of these approaches is to clarify intervenable processes as targets for therapeutic development. In this review, we describe some of the approaches being taken to apply translational genomics to the study of diseases commonly encountered in the neurocritical care setting, including hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus, utilizing both forward and reverse genomic translational techniques. Further, we highlight approaches in the field that could be applied in neurocritical care to improve our ability to identify new treatment modalities as well as to provide important information to patients about risk and prognosis.
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsNeurostimulant administration during acute stroke care may improve wakefulness. Future controlled studies with a neurostimulant administration protocol, prospective evaluation, and discretely defined response and safety criteria are needed to confirm these encouraging findings.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe available evidence suggests hyperosmolar therapy may be helpful in reducing ICP elevations or cerebral edema in patients with SAH, TBI, AIS, ICH, and HE, although neurological outcomes do not appear to be affected. Corticosteroids appear to be helpful in reducing cerebral edema in patients with bacterial meningitis, but not ICH. Differences in therapeutic response and safety may exist between HTS and mannitol. The use of these agents in these critical clinical situations merits close monitoring for adverse effects. There is a dire need for high-quality research to better inform clinicians of the best options ...
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This article will review basic neurovascular anatomy, periprocedural management, NA technique, and tips for safe and successful outcomes. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Seminars in Interventional Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss or gain could be a risk factor for mortality from total or ischemic CVD, while weight loss could be a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID: 32378530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis - Category: Cardiology Tags: J Atheroscler Thromb Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this group of patients with prolonged QTc in the Neuro ICU, we observed several episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and identified important risk factors associated with their occurrence. This knowledge is essential to inform clinical decisions.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stroke in this cohort was 3.1%. Ischemic strokes had a bimodal presentation, occurring either early after SLE diagnosis or after a several-year delay. Half of the hemorrhagic strokes occurred>10 years after the diagnosis of SLE. Clinical outcome was usually good with a relatively low recurrence rate. PMID: 32151182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Lupus - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Lupus Source Type: research
Authors: Baranowska B, Kochanowski J Abstract Copeptin, arginine vasopressin (AVP)-associated 39 aminoacid glycopeptide, is a C-terminal part of pro-AVP. AVP acts through V1a, V1b, and V2 receptors. The effect on V1a receptors is connected with arterial vasoconstriction, on V2 with antidiuretic action, and on V1b with the secretion of ACTH, insulin, glucagon. Copeptin is found in the circulation in equimolar amounts with AVP. It is a very stable peptide and easy to estimate. Copeptin is a good diagnostic marker in many disorders in which vasopressinergic dysfunction plays a role in pathogenesis such as a polyu...
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized medicine, but MRI scanners are so demanding that access to them is still a challenge. MRI machines typically require specially built rooms with magnet quench vent pipes, entry systems that check peo...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Emergency Medicine Neurology Neurosurgery Radiology Source Type: blogs
Time-critical acute ischemic conditions such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction and acute ischemic stroke are staples in Emergency Medicine practice. While timely reperfusion therapy is a priority, the resultant acute ischemia/reperfusion injury contributes to significant mortality and morbidity. Among therapeutics targeting ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has emerged as the most promising. RIC, which consists of repetitive inflation and deflation of a pneumatic cuff on a limb, was first demonstrated to have protective effect on IRI through various neural and humoral mechanisms. It...
Source: Shock - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe SPICE multicenter study will investigate 1-year outcomes, ethical issues, as well as care pathways of acute stroke patients requiring invasive ventilation in the ICU. Gathered data will delineate human resources and facilities needs for adequate management. The identification of prognostic factors at the acute phase will help to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged intensive care and rehabilitation.Trial registration: NCT03335995.
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: Biology | Brain | Genetics | Hemorrhagic Stroke | Ischemic Stroke | Neurology | Stroke | Study | Subarachnoid Hemorrhage