CD1d expression and invariant natural killer T-cell numbers are reduced in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers and are further impaired by commonly used chemotherapies

AbstractEsophageal and gastric cancers collectively cause over 1.1 million deaths annually and only 20 –30% of patients respond favorably to current therapies. Cellular therapies using invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are showing promise for patients with other cancers; therefore, we investigated if these cells are altered in esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Flow cytometric analysis o f peripheral blood from 139 patients revealed that iNKT cells are depleted from patients with esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, both before and after treatment. Interrogation of the KMPlot database of transcriptomic data from 876 gastric cancer patients re vealed that low CD1d expression is associated with poor prognosis. These observations suggest that therapies that boost CD1d expression and iNKT cell responses may benefit these patients. However, we found that chemotherapies used for esophageal and gastric cancers have adverse effects on iNKT cells in vitro. Cisplatin caused a significant reduction of CD1d expression by esophageal tumor cell lines. Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in primary lines of iNKT cells and inhibited CD1d-dependent interferon-γ production and cytolytic degranulation by viable iNKT cells. Interestingly, cisplatin increased granzyme B and perforin production and decreased the production of the granzyme B inhibitor PI9, which protects cytotoxic cells from self-...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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This study assesses survival improvement across a decade (2004 –2013) among patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers in a real-world setting.MethodsSurveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was accessed and patients with metastatic gastrointestinal carcinomas who have received any form of systemic therapy were included. Patients were grouped into three cohorts based on the year of diagnosis (cohort-1: 2004 –2006; cohort-2: 2008–2010; cohort-3: 2012–2013). Overall survival was compared among the three cohorts for each disease site using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates.Result...
Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) express anti-inflammatory properties and prevent tumor progression. Conversely, n-6 PUFAs exhibit carcinogenic properties. Recent epidemiologic studies have examined the association of fish with upper gastrointestinal cancer risk, but the associations with n-3 and n-6 PUFA subtypes remain unclear. Utilizing the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-2011), we prospectively investigated the associations of PUFA subtypes, ratios, and fish with the incidence of head and neck (HNC, n=2,453), esophageal (n=855 adenocarcinoma, EA, and n=267 squamous cell carcinoma, ESCC), a...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research
Endoscopy DOI: 10.1055/a-1104-5245In Europe at present, but also in 2040, 1 in 3 cancer-related deaths are expected to be caused by digestive cancers. Endoscopic technologies enable diagnosis, with relatively low invasiveness, of precancerous conditions and early cancers, thereby improving patient survival. Overall, endoscopy capacity must be adjusted to facilitate both effective screening programs and rigorous control of the quality assurance and surveillance systems required. 1 For average-risk populations, ESGE recommends the implementation of organized population-based screening programs for colorectal cancer, based...
Source: Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Position Statement Source Type: research
Conditions:   Clinical Stage IV Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVB Esophageal Adenocarcin...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: March 2020Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 123Author(s): Ying Wang, Nayiyuan Wu, Xia Luo, Xiaoyun Zhang, Qianjin Liao, Jing WangAbstractSOX2OT is a long non-coding RNA that is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells. The SOX2OT gene is comprised of 10 exons and more than two transcription start sites. Dysregulation of SOX2OT is observed in various tumors, including lung cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, nasopharyngeal carc...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In the general populations, no significant association was found between Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, lower risk was found in the Middle East. Helicobacter pylori infection may reduce the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but such "protection effect" may be overestimated. PMID: 31871444 [PubMed]
Source: Gastroenterology Research and Practice - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterol Res Pract Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether combining anti-PD-L1 Atezolizumab with BEV may have a synergistic effect and enhance the efficacy of both treatments in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CREOC). We retrospectively analyzed 124 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from Gynecologic Oncology Department of Tianjin Cancer Hospital between January 2013 and June 2018, who all were diagnosed with cisplatin resistance due to progressing
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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