“Living robots”: Ethical questions about Xenobots

by Simon Coghlan, Ph.D. and Kobi Leins, Ph.D. Xenobots have been called “novel living machines” and “living robots”. A co-author of the paper that recently introduced xenobots, said: They’re neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. [They’re] a new class of artefact: a living, “programmable organism”. These “reconfigurable organisms” have already provoked philosophical and ethical questions. Xenobots are under 1mm in size and composed of 500-1000 cells from frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. After culturing extracted embryonic stem cells, micro-surgery tools help “glue” the naturally sticky cells together in a range of simple organismic configurations, e.g.…
Source: blog.bioethics.net - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Environmental Ethics Featured Posts Philosophy & Ethics Science Technology Source Type: blogs

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Publication date: Available online 27 March 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ming-Chang Chiang, Christopher J.B. Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Chiahui Yen, Chien-Hung Lin, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Rong-Nan Huang
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Following nerve tissue damage, various events, such as inflammatory responses, microglial activation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis, can occur, which all lead to cell death, prevent axonal growth, and cause axonal circumvolution. So far, several researchers have tended to adopt strategies to reduce the harmful conditions associated with neurological disorders, and stem‑cell‑based therapy is one of those promising strategies. Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI‑NCSCs) are a type of stem cell that has widely been employed for the treatment of various neurological disorders. It has bee...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: EpCAM proved high specificity among HCC patients and its expression was associated with metastasis and portal vein thrombosis. Higher serum levels of CEA among the EpCAM positive patients may attract the attention to a subgroup of HCC patients who are more liable to develop metastasis.. PMID: 32212818 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
Authors: Peymaeei F, Sadeghi F, Safari E, Khorrami S, Falahati M, Roudbar Mohammadi S, Roudbary M Abstract OBJECTIVE: β-glucan, glucopyranosyl polymers of fungi cell wall, represent an immune stimulating effects with potential anti-cancer activity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have immunomodulating properties in cancer microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of Candida albicans (C. albicans) beta-glucan on MSCs supernatant for apoptosis assay of lung cancer cells in vitro. METHODS: Beta-glucan was extracted from cell wall of C.albicans. MSC isolated from adipose ti...
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Nobiletin might serve as a lead compound for the development of CSCs-targeted drugs by targeting estrogen and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Further studies are needed to explore the full therapeutic potential of nobiletin in cancer stem cells.. PMID: 32212785 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
Purpose of review This review provides a risk-stratified and evidence-based management for subsets of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients in the first five years from disease onset. Recent findings Cardiopulmonary disease remains the primary cause of mortality in SSc patients. Morbidity and mortality in SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension have improved with combination treatment, in either an upfront or sequential treatment pattern. Traditional therapies for interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) have targeted those with clinically significant and progressive ILD with immunosuppression. New data suggest a possib...
Source: Current Opinion in Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS AND HEMATOLOGIC COMPLICATIONS: Edited by W. Joseph McCune Source Type: research
Authors: Patwardhan RS, Singh B, Pal D, Checker R, Bandekar M, Sharma D, Sandur SK Abstract The choice between immunity or tolerance is a consequence of T-cell fate determined by T cell receptor affinity to cognate MHC-peptide complex, costimulatory molecules and cytokines from antigen presenting cells. While activated, effector and memory T cells provide immunity against antigens, regulatory T cells play a pivotal non-redundant role in immune tolerance and tissue repair. T-cell differentiation and functions are also well known to be governed by the redox status. Physiological redox status is determined by oxygen c...
Source: Free Radical Research - Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research
Authors: Shaik JP, Alanazi IO, Pathan AAK, Parine NR, Almadi MA, Azzam NA, Aljebreen AM, Alharbi O, Alanazi MS, Khan Z Abstract Colorectal cancer is a major health concern as it ranks third in incidence and second major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A leading cause of treatment failure has been attributed to cancer stem cells that can invariably resist existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Notch signaling pathway has been involved in the maintenance of stem cells besides being crucial in cell fate decision and embryonic development. This pathway has also been implicated in several human malignancies inclu...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Singh SP, Singh R, Gupta OP, Gupta S, Brahma Bhatt ML Abstract Mounting evidence from the literature suggests the existence of a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in almost all types of human cancers. These CSCs possessing a self-renewal capacity inhabit primary tumors and are more defiant to standard antimitotic and molecularly targeted therapies which are used for eliminating actively proliferating and differentiated cancer cells. Clinical relevance of CSCs emerges from the fact that they are the root cause of therapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Earlier, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiot...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Stem Cell Research, Volume 44Author(s): Yinghao Huo, Jin Wang, Jingjing He, Desheng Kong, Jun Ma
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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