Distal radius bone microarchitecture: what are the differences between age 25 and old age?

This study reported that the transitional zones in older adults were enlarged at the expense of the compact-appearing cortex with a greater porosity in all cortical sub-compartments. The magnitude of differences in areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD, vBMD) between older and younger groups was similar.IntroductionAging is strongly associated with bone loss, but little is known about magnitudes of differences in bone microarchitectures, aBMD, and vBMD from peak bone mass (PBM) to senescence. We aimed to describe differences in aBMD, vBMD, and bone microarchitecture parameters at the distal radius between older and young adults.MethodsWe compared 201 participants, aged 62 –89 years (female 47%) and 196 participants, aged 24–28 years (female 38%). Bone microarchitecture parameters at distal radius were measured using high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HRpQCT). aBMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unpairedt tests and chi-square tests were used to compare differences in means and proportions as appropriate.ResultsOlder adults had thinner compact-appearing cortices with larger (cross-sectional area: outer 30.96  mm2 vs. 28.38  mm2, inner 36.34  mm2 vs. 32.93  mm2) and thicker (outer 0.57  mm vs. 0.54 mm, inner 0.71 mm vs. 0.65 mm) transitional zones compared with young adults (allp 
Source: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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AbstractThe surgeon general of the USA defines osteoporosis as “a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, predisposing to an increased risk of fracture.” Measuring bone strength,Biomechanical Computed Tomography analysis  (BCT), namely, finite element analysis of a patient’s clinical-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan, is now available in the USA as a Medicare screening benefit for osteoporosis diagnostic testing. Helping to address under-diagnosis of osteoporosis, BCT can be applied “opportunistically” to most existing CT scans that include the spine or hip re...
Source: Osteoporosis International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Objective: In obese men, the increased expression of the aromatase enzyme in adipose tissue leads to high conversion of androgens to estrogens contributing to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). Our objective is to evaluate efficacy and safety of weight loss (WL) plus aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in severely obese men with HHG. We hypothesize that AI+WL will be more effective as compared to WL alone in improving the hormonal profile, thus muscle strength and symptoms of HHG (primary outcomes), with no significant adverse effects on lean mass, metabolic profile, and bone mineral density (secondary outcomes).Design: Ran...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Aims: To evaluate the effects of side-alternating vibration therapy on physical function and body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome.Methods: Fourteen adolescents (8 males) with Down syndrome (mean ± SD age: 15.5 ± 2.3 years) performed vibration treatment nine minutes daily, four times per week, for 20 weeks on a Galileo vibration platform. Data were collected at baseline and after 20 weeks of intervention. Assessments included six-minute walk test, muscle function (force plate), whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and perip...
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: Phys Occup Ther Pediatr Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Recommendations were sent to the authorities of AEC-ROC to implement actions that could reduce doses at these high-dose locations to meet the ALARA principle. PMID: 32364147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Technology and Health Care - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Technol Health Care Source Type: research
Background: Reduced bone mineral mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry is reported in children living with HIV (CLWH), but few studies of bone microarchitecture, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, have been conducted. Here, we compare bone architecture and strength in black South African CLWH and uninfected control children by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Setting and Methods: One hundred seventy-two CLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 98 controls in the CHANGES Bone Study in Johannesburg, South Africa received pQCT scans of the radius and tibia. Measurements included trabecular and cortical vo...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with inflammatory arthropathies have a high rate of fragility fractures. Diagnostic assessment and monitoring of bone density and quality are therefore critically important. Here, we review standard and advanced techniques to measure bone density and quality, specifically focusing on patients with inflammatory arthropathies.Recent FindingsCurrent standard procedures are dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). DXA-based newer methods include trabecular bone score (TBS) and vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). More advanced imaging methods to measur...
Source: Current Rheumatology Reports - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
We report results at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 years of continuous therapy with rhPTH(1–84). The majority of patients (62%) took rhPTH(1–84) 100 μg every other day for the majority of the 4 years. At 48 months, areal bone density increased at the lumbar spine (+4.9% ± 0.9%) and femoral neck (+2.4% ± 0.9%), with declines at the total hip (−2.3% ± 0.8%) and ultradistal radius (−2.1% ± 0.7%) (p 
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses imaging modalities for fracture repair assessment, with an emphasis on pragmatic clinical and translational use, best practices for implementation, and challenges and opportunities for continuing research.Recent FindingsSemiquantitative radiographic union scoring remains the clinical gold standard, but has questionable reliability as a surrogate indicator of structural bone healing, particularly in early-stage, complex, or compromised healing scenarios. Alternatively, computed tomography (CT) scanning enables quantitative assessment of callus morphometry and mechanics through ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeTo compare the performance of using Hounsfield units (HU) value derived from computed tomography and T-score of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to predict pedicle screw loosening.MethodsWe reviewed 253 patients aged  ≥ 50 years undergoing pedicle screw fixation for lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). The evaluation of screw loosening: radiolucent zones of ≥ 1 mm thick in X-ray. The criterion for osteoporosis: the lowest T-score ≤ − 2.5. The average HU value of L1–L4 was used to represe nt lumbar bone mineral density (BMD)....
Source: European Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that VPA affects the microarchitectural properties of the bone. The AEDs CBZ, ESL and LEV appear to have less adverse effects on bone biology and may be a better choice when treating patients with respect to bone health. PMID: 32193854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Pharmacological Reports - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research
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