Prevention of transmission of leprosy: The current scenario

Aparna Palit, Hemanta Kumar KarIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 2020 86(2):115-123 With the worldwide implementation of WHO multidrug therapy in the 1980s, the global burden of leprosy has decreased. However, the annual new case detection rate around the world has remained nearly static over the past decade with India, Brazil, and Indonesia contributing the majority of these new cases. This has been attributed to the ongoing transmission of Mycobacterium leprae from existing untreated cases and partly to the intensive new case detection programs operative in endemic areas. The WHO has called for a “global interruption of transmission of leprosy by 2020”. Targeted chemoprophylaxis of contacts may help bring down the number of new cases. The single-dose rifampicin currently in use for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has limitations and so newer antileprosy drugs and regimens have been trialed for chemoprophylaxis. BCG re-vaccination in combination with chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of leprosy transmission has not been very encouraging. The use of the anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody test to detect subclinical cases and administer targeted chemoprophylaxis was unsuccessful owing to its low sensitivity and technical difficulties in a field setup. There is a pressing need for newer multidrug chemoprophylactic regimens using second-line antileprosy drugs. The Netherlands Leprosy Relief has proposed an enhanced PEP++ reg...
Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: Meta GeneAuthor(s): Everaldina Cordeiro dos Santos, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Corrêa Amador Silvestre, Jasna Letícia Pinto Paz, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima
Source: Meta Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceDespite their high impact on affected populations, we observed a high level of ignorance and neglect toward common skin diseases. There is a critical need to increase awareness of skin diseases, or skin health promotion, which supports changing of the health-seeking behaviour for skin conditions. This will aid in early detection and treatment of the skin NTDs, in addition to providing benefits for those affected by other skin diseases. Educational opportunities should be utilized to their utmost. One would be associated with WASH strategies, but careful messages need to be developed and delivered.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study helped quantify the information gaps that need to be addressed in order to create demand for integrated skin NTDs services in an endemic setting in Nigeria. Individual, structural and socioeconomic challenges to access and delivery of services were identified. Community and health care workers ’ empowerment and engagement through outreach and regular training, respectively may alleviate these challenges.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Thomas Ploemacher, William R. Faber, Henk Menke, Victor Rutten, Toine Pieters Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused byMycobacterium leprae (M.leprae) and the more recently discoveredMycobacterium lepromatosis (M.lepromatosis). The two leprosy bacilli cause similar pathologic conditions. They primarily target the skin and the peripheral nervous system. Currently it is considered a Neglected Tropical Disease, being endemic in specific locations within countries of the Americas, Asia, and Africa, while in Europe it is only rarely reported. The reason for a spatial inequality in the prevalence of leprosy in so-cal...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The aim was to analyze the acceptability of chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (PEP) in contacts, index leprosy cases, and health professionals and related factors that can influence adherence. A qualitative content analysis study was performed after application of semi-structured interviews according to the protocol proposed in the LPEP program (2016) drafted at Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in July 2016. Study participants included individuals with leprosy, contacts, and health professionals. The QRS NVivo software version 10 was used. A total of 80 individuals were contacted, incl...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research
Abstract This ecological study aims to analyze both the tendency and the characteristics of leprosy in the elderly population in the state of Bahia, 2001-2017. The tendency was analyzed through joinpoint regression. Epidemiological variables were also included in the study. The average detection rate was 38.73/100,000, with prevalence of men (45.19/100,000). A downward trend occurred in both genders, from 2004, with a greater magnitude in women (annual percent change [APC] = − 3.4%). Men presented higher proportions of the multibacillary forms and physical disabilities. The epidemiological scenario indicates the need...
Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) is an abundant antigen on the Mycobacterium leprae cell wall, commonly used for operational classification of leprosy patients. Our aim was to develop PGL-I mimotopes with similar characteristics and functions of the native antigen. We have used a random peptide phage display (PD) library for selections against the monoclonal antibody anti-PGL-I. After three selection cycles, six peptides were identified. All sequences were interspersed by a spacer generating a chimeric peptide (PGLI-M3) that was artificially synthesized. The highly reactive peptide was submitted to a reverse PD selection with...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this report, we describe the development of a leprosy skin test using M. leprae-specific antigens. We selected the chimeric LID-1 fusion protein, formulated to achieve maximum performance at a minimal dose, as a skin test candidate based on its ability to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in M. leprae immune guinea pigs in a sensitive and specific manner, i.e., with no cross-reactivity observed with other mycobacterial species. Importantly, evaluations in armadillos indicated that intradermal inoculation of formulated LID-1 could distinguish uninfected from M. leprae-infected animals manifesting with ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome is inactive in leprosy, suggesting immune evasion of M. leprae. PMID: 32130367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
RESUMO: Introdu ção: A hanseníase é uma doença que guarda estreita relação com as condições sociais e econômicas. O Brasil é o único país que ainda não alcançou a meta de eliminação da doença como problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a associação en tre a carência social dos municípios baianos e a detecção de casos novos de hanseníase na população, como instrumento para a defini&ccedi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
More News: Brazil Health | Dermatology | Endemics | India Health | Indonesia Health | Leprosy | Netherlands Health | Skin | Vaccines