Activating Quiescent ILC2 Immune Cells in the Aging Mouse Brain Improves Cognitive Function

In this study, we report the accumulation of tissue-resident ILC2 in the choroid plexus of the aged brain, with ILC2 comprising a major subset of lymphocytes in the choroid plexus of aged mice and humans. ILC2 in the aged brain are long-lived and capable of reversibly switching between cell cycle dormancy and proliferation. They are relatively resistant to cellular senescence and exhaustion under replication stress, leading to enhanced self-renewal capability. They are functionally quiescent at homeostasis but can be activated by exogenous IL-33 to produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 as well as a variety of other effector molecules in vitro and in vivo. When activated in vitro and transferred intracerebroventricularly, they revitalized the aged brains and enhanced cognitive function of aged mice. Administration of IL-5, a major ILC2 product, repressed aging-associated neuroinflammation and alleviated aging-associated cognitive decline. Together, these results suggest that aging may expand a unique population of brain-resident ILC2 with enhanced cellular fitness and potent neuroprotective capability. Targeting ILC2 in the aged brain may unlock therapies to combat aging-related neurodegenerative disorders.
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

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Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. NIDCR's Spring 2020 E-Newsletter In this issue: NIDCR News Funding Opportunities NIH/HHS News Funding Notices Science Advances Subscribe to NICDR News Grantee News   NIDCR News CDC’s COVID-19 Guidance for Dental Settings  Dental health care personnel can find COVID-19-related information on the CDC’s Division of Oral Health website, which offers guidance and resources for clinics and health care facilities and recommen...
Source: NIDCR Science News - Category: Dentistry Source Type: news
Authors: Ye J, Xue R, Ji ZY, Zou CJ, Chen YQ, Wang JJ, Cheng XD Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat model of SCI was first successfully established using the impactor (SCI group). Meanwhile, control group and NT-3 treatment group were set up as well. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was given and blood, and spinal cord tissues were collected from rats. Subsequently, serum indexes were detected, including glucos...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
We report a new class of natural-product-inspired covalent inhibitors of telomerase that target the catalytic active site. Age-Related Epigenetic Changes that Suppress Mitochondrial Function https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/03/age-related-epigenetic-changes-that-suppress-mitochondrial-function/ Today's open access research reports on two specific epigenetic changes observed in old individuals that act to reduce mitochondrial function. This joins an existing list of genes for which expression changes are known to impact mitochondrial function with age. A herd of hundreds of mitochondria are found ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CF Abstract Neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) that project long axons into the spinal cord have a poor axon regenerative capacity compared to neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The corticospinal tract (CST) is particularly notorious for its poor regeneration. Because of this, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that remains as yet uncured. Based on our recent observations that direct neuronal interleukin-4 (IL-4) signaling leads to repair of axonal swellings and beneficial effects in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that IL-4 acts directly on the CST. Here, we develope...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, responsible for producing the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that powers cellular operations. As such, most processes of interest in disease and regeneration have at least some indirect dependency on mitochondrial function. Researchers here note a potential connection between mitochondrial function and the inability of nerves to regrow following injury. They provide evidence for an adjustment to the way in which mitochondria behave in nerve cells, and in the connections between nerve cells called axons, to spur regeneration. This is an interesting ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to gain a better understanding of osteoporotic fractures and the different mechanisms that are driven in the scenarios of bone disuse due to spinal cord injury and osteometabolic disorders due to diabetes.Recent FindingsDespite major advances in understanding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis, the high incidence of impaired fracture healing remains an important complication of bone loss, leading to marked impairment of the health of an individual and economic burden to the medical system.SummaryThis review underlines several pathways leading to bo...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
In this study, we applied 18F-alfatide II positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to monitor angiogenesis in an SCI model after estrogen (E2) treatment, as well as to evaluate the prognosis in a noninvasive manner. The SCI model was established with male rats and the rats were randomly divided into E2-treated group (SCI + E2) and E2-untreated group (SCI). Sham group was also used as control (Sham). The angiogenesis after SCI was monitored by 18F-alfatide II PET/CT and verified by immunofluorescence of CD31 and CD61. We also evaluated the level of E2 and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) by enzyme-linke...
Source: Molecular Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Mol Imaging Source Type: research
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Plexin-B2, an axon guidance protein in the central nervous system (CNS), plays an important role in wound healing and neural repair following spinal cord injury (SCI), according to research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published today in Nature Neuroscience
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Monosynaptic rabies tracing can be used to map inputs to stem cell ‐derived neurons grafted to models of neurodegenerative disease and injury. These studies indicate that graft neurons receive anatomically‐appropriate inputs, but it remains to be determined whether those inputs are necessary for functional recovery. Next‐generation rabies tracing is poised to address this outstanding question, which may aid ongoing translational efforts. ABSTRACTFetal neural progenitor grafts have been evaluated in preclinical animal models of spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease for decades, but the initial reliance on primary...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Translational and Clinical Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Increase of miR-34a suppresses neuronal apoptosis and alleviates microglia inflammation by negatively targeting the Notch pathway, thereby improving neural recovery and locomotor function. PMID: 32096191 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
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