Effects of metformin on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice and its mechanisms

Metformin, an AMPK activator, is a widely used medicine for type II diabetes, which has been considered to exert the anti-inflammatory effects. It has been reported that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often utilized to induce depressive-like behavior in mice with respect to recent studies. However, whether metformin alleviates the symptoms of depressive-like behaviors and its mechanisms remain unexplored. The present study investigates whether metformin alleviates LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice and aims to explore the mechanisms. We first treated adult mice with LPS (0.83  mg/kg, intraperitoneal) to induce depressive-like behavior model for 24  hours after treatment with or without metformin. Then, the effects of metformin on depressive-like behaviors were detected by tail suspension test and forced swim test. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2) and inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, IL-6 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), which are concerned with inflammation and Lcn-2. It was shown that LPS-induced mouse depressive-like behaviors, as indicated by the increased time of immobility in tail suspension test and forced swim test, were reversed by metformin. It was also shown that LPS increased the mRNA expression levels of Lcn-2 and inflammation-related molecules such as IL-1β in the amygdala ...
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Severe acute pancreatitis during pregnancy leads to a high rate of fetal mortality.Gestational trimester, delayed diagnosis, HTG, MOF, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preeclampsia are predictors of fetal loss. Therefore, close monitoring is essential for pregnancies complicated with HTG, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. PMID: 32249649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Authors: Esteves JV, Yonamine CY, Machado UF PMID: 32250156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We found that half of acute-care hospitals did not provide any hospital-based psychiatric care for patients with suicide attempts or self-harm. PMID: 32249268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: J Epidemiol Source Type: research
Authors: Granick MS, Tran BNN, Alvarez OM Abstract The surgical surgical debridement of wounds has evolved over the past 250 years. At that time, the amputation of extremities was recognized as a life-saving procedure to treat major wounds suffered in combat. This continued until after World War I. As the survival of patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions improved, and as advanced therapies were developed to meet the needs of an increasing number of patients with chronic wounds, debridement became a focal point of surgical wound care. It is now well-established that debridement enhances wound-healing a...
Source: Surgical Technology International - Category: Surgery Tags: Surg Technol Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The CFAs do not provide clear evidence for either an uni- or a multidimensional structure of the BSS. In the light of this finding, use of the BSS score is limited despite evidence supporting its reliability and convergent validity. PMID: 32252119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Diabetes-specific screening instruments and/or specific screening questions should be used in outpatient routine care for young adults in a standardized manner, especially among young women, and the results should be discussed with the patients to initiate further treatment. PMID: 32252118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol Source Type: research
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Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Authors: Desmettre T Abstract Nearly one-third of the planet's population is affected by T. gondii infection. In ophthalmology, toxoplasmosis is even considered to be the most common cause of posterior uveitis of infectious origin. Humans are only an intermediate host, and T. gondii needs to infect cats for its sexual reproduction. All the elements increasing the risk of predation by the definitive host are then favourable to the parasite. Numerous experimental animal model studies have shown that T. gondii infection is associated with predatory risk behaviours such as an attraction of infected mice ...
Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the anxiety, depression and quality of life scores of children and adolescents diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and compare these scores with the ones of healthy controls. The study group comprised of 130 children and adolescents diagnosed with FMF with a mean age of 12.6  ± 2.58 and control group comprised of 121 healthy controls with a mean age of 11.8 ± 2.84. Both groups were evaluated with child depression inventory (CDI), screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED), pediatric quality of life inventory TM 4.0 (Peds...
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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