Randomized Clinical Trials of Artificial Intelligence

As patient data are increasingly captured digitally, the opportunities to deploy artificial intelligence (AI), especially machine learning, are increasing rapidly. Machine learning is automated learning by computers using tools such as artificial neural networks to search data iteratively for optimal solutions. Typical applications include searching for novel patterns (eg, latent cancer subtypes), making a diagnosis or outcome prediction (eg, diabetic retinopathy), and optimizing treatment decisions (eg, fluid and vasopressor titration for septic shock). Although many express excitement regarding the promise of AI, others express concern about adverse consequences, such as loss of physician and patient autonomy or unintended bias, and still others claim that the entire endeavor is largely hype, with virtually no data that actual patient outcomes have improved.
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) are two intracellular enzymes that catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, respectively. By fine tuning intracellular NAD levels, they are involved in the regulation/reprogramming of cellular metabolism and in the control of the activity of NAD-dependent enzymes, including sirtuins, PARPs, and NADases. However, during evolution they both acquired novel functions as extracellular endogenous mediators of inflammation. It is well-known that cellular stress and/or damage induce releas...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this large observational study using a national clinical database, obese patients undergoing PD for head of pancreas cancer had increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality in comparison to controls.
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: DAC may exert an anti-cancer effect, which can lead to tumor regression. This is supposed to be achieved by the combined DAC's immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic effects mediated through multiple signaling pathways. We propose that DAC can be used as a complementary medicine to prolong the life expectancy and improve the life quality of SCLC patients. PMID: 31561410 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Lea Tunisi1,2, Nicola Forte2, Alba Clara Fernández-Rilo2, Isabella Mavaro1,2, Raffaele Capasso3, Livia D'Angelo1,4, Nataša Milić5, Luigia Cristino2, Vincenzo Di Marzo2,6 and Letizia Palomba2,7* 1Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy 2Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (ICB), National Research Council (CNR), Pozzuoli, Italy 3Department of Agricultural Science, University of Naples Federico II, Portici, Italy 4Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy 5Department of Pharmacy, University o...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This study was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Sprent J, Kishimoto H. The thymus and central tolerance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (2001) 356:609–16. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0846 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 2. Sakaguchi S, Wing K, Miyara M. Regulatory T cells - a brief history and perspective. ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe use of OA as bowel preparation may reduce, rather than increase, the risk of 30-day CDI after colectomy. This effect may partly be due to the other recovery advantages associated with oral antibiotics. These data further support current data recommending the use of oral antibiotics for bowel preparation before colectomy.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Author(s): A.K. Bartella, A.-K. Sander, M. Kamal, J. Steegmann, A. Kloss-Brandstätter, J. Teichmann, F. Hölzle, B. Lethaus Despite improvements in the management of patients in critical care, about 3% patients who have an operation with curative intent for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) do not survive their stay in hospital. Our aim was to assess the risk factors for postoperative death that were independent of the stage of the cancer, or the age and sex of the patients. We screened 4760 consecutive inpat...
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that rs1205 genetic variability in the CRP gene determines the CRP levels in sepsis of different severities, while SNP rs3091244 and SNP rs2808630 are not associated with sepsis. However, the results of the present study on SNP rs1205, rs3091244, and rs2808630 in the CRP gene should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size and sample heterogeneity. Large-scale, well-designed studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID: 29379005 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
This study cohort is a healthy subset of the EpiPath cohort, excluding all participants with acute or chronic diseases. With a mediation analysis we examined whether CMV titers may account for immunosenescence observed in ELA. In this study, we have shown that ELA is associated with higher levels of T cell senescence in healthy participants. Not only did we find a higher number of senescent cells (CD57+), these cells also expressed higher levels of CD57, a cell surface marker for senescence, and were more cytotoxic in ELA compared to controls. Control participants with high CMV titers showed a higher number of senes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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