Forward and Backward Input Variable Selection for Polynomial Echo State Networks
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Cuili Yang, Xinxin Zhu, Junfei Qiao, Kaizhe NieAbstractAs extension of traditional echo state networks (ESNs), the polynomial echo state networks (PESNs) have been proposed in our previous work (C.L. Yang, J.F. Qiao, H.G. Han, L. Wang, Design of polynomial echo state networks for time series prediction, Neurocomputing 290 (2018) 148-160.) by employing the polynomial function of complete input variable as output weight matrix. In practice, the generalization performance and computational burden of PESNs are perturbed by redundant or irrelevant inputs. To construct output weights with a suitable subset of input variables, the forward selection based PESN (FS-PESN) and backward selection based PESN (BS-PESN) are proposed. Firstly, the forward selection method is used in FS-PESN to choose the input variable which incurs the maximum reduction on objective function, and the backward selection shame is introduced in BS-PESN to remove the input variable which leads to the smallest increment on objective function. Then, the iterative updating strategies are designed to avoid repetitive computations in FS-PESN and BS-PESN. Specially, an accelerating scheme is introduced into BS-PESN to simplify training process. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed techniques in terms of generalization ability and testing time.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
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