The role of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers

Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Luiz Antonio Lupi, Maira Smaniotto Cucielo, Henrique Spaulonci Silveira, Letícia Barbosa Gaiotte, Roberta Carvalho Cesário, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira Seiva, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida ChuffaAbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical sensors related to inflammation and tumorigenesis. Among all subtypes, the TLR4 is a highly described transmembrane protein involved in the inflammatory process. The TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway has been implicated in oncogenic events in several tissues and is associated with survival of patients. Through activation, TLR4 recruits adaptor proteins, i.e., MyD88 or TRIF, to triggers canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways that result in distinct immune responses. In most cancer cells, uncontrolled TLR4 signaling modifies the tumor microenvironment to proliferate and evade immune surveillance. By contrast, TLR4 activation can produce antitumor activities, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and enhancing the proper immune response. We review herein recent approaches on the role of the TLR4 signaling pathway and discuss potential candidates for gynecological cancer therapies; among these agents, natural and synthetic compounds have been tested both in vitro and in vivo. Since TLR4 ligands have been investigated as effective immune-adjuvants in the context of these aggressive malignancies, we described how TLR4...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that 35% (7/20) of HSIL-confirmed biopsies previously had negative HPV assays. Despite the previous negative HPV tests, a wide variety of HPV genotypes has been detected in most biopsies. In our case, we frequently identified the HPV 59 and 45 strains, 51 cases with HSIL lesions presented a first positive HPV test, 13 cases with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) showed three negative HPV tests. Prevention plays an important role in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer cases. The Pap test is now considered the primary prevention method, but consecutive vaccination sign...
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - Category: General Medicine Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research
Abstract Gynaecologic and breast cancers share some similarities at the molecular level. The aims of our study are to highlight the similarities and differences about IDO1, an important immune-related gene in female cancers. The NGS data from TCGA of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC), ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV), uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC), uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) and breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) were analysed to identify molecular features, and clinically significant and potential therapeutic targets of IDO1. We found IDO1 was significantly up-regulated in four gynaecolo...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: Although synchronous lesions are rarely encountered, this eventuality should not be omitted. In such cases, surgery should be taken in consideration and the intent of radicality should regard both lesions. PMID: 32235322 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Outpatient SMS interventions can be successfully implemented even for rapidly fatal conditions at the end-of-life and offer significant benefit to gynecologic cancer patients with MBO. Counselling should focus on the specific trajectory of MBO, and early palliative care referrals should be standard practice. PMID: 32217004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Gynecologic Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVES: It is important to develop effective therapies in minorities to ensure equity in cancer care. Underrepresentation of minorities in early phase trials may cause therapies that are effective only in majority populations. We evaluated minority participation in gynecologic oncology phase 1 clinical trials. METHODS: In peer-reviewed published articles of gynecologic oncology phase 1 clinical trials from years 1985 to 2018, we manually abstracted racial distribution of enrolled participants, cancer type, and year published. We calculated expected and observed ratios of racial participation on t...
Source: Gynecologic Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe performance of professionals at the national level is uneven, demonstrating the need for referral centers to ensure optimal management. International guidelines should be more widely extended throughout Spain to homogenize the treatment of young oncology patients who wish to have children.
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: GDM is associated with a greater risk of cancer in women, including breast, thyroid, stomach and liver cancers. However, further investigation is nonetheless warranted. PMID: 32097717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
SummaryThe introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) has set a  paradigm shift within the therapies for a variety of advanced solid tumors. By altering key regulators of cellular immune response, so-called immune checkpoints, CPIs modulate peripheral cancer immune tolerance to induce cancer-targeted immune reactions. Response rates, however, vary significantl y between different solid tumor types. A certain efficacy of CPIs has been described for gynecological malignancies, as the KEYNOTE-028 study reported an objective response rate (ORR) of 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8–33.6) for endometr...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Gynecologic cancers impact women of all ages. Some women may wish to preserve their capacity for future childbearing. With appropriate patient selection, acceptable oncologic outcomes may be achieved with preservation of fertility. Determination of eligibility for fertility preservation is guided by patient factors, tumor histology, and preoperative local staging with pelvic MR imaging. The aim of this article is to educate radiologists on the current guidelines for fertility-sparing techniques in women with early stage cervical, endometrial, and ovarian malignancies. PMID: 32044014 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 32040210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Clin Genet Source Type: research
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