The role of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers

Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Luiz Antonio Lupi, Maira Smaniotto Cucielo, Henrique Spaulonci Silveira, Letícia Barbosa Gaiotte, Roberta Carvalho Cesário, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira Seiva, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida ChuffaAbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical sensors related to inflammation and tumorigenesis. Among all subtypes, the TLR4 is a highly described transmembrane protein involved in the inflammatory process. The TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway has been implicated in oncogenic events in several tissues and is associated with survival of patients. Through activation, TLR4 recruits adaptor proteins, i.e., MyD88 or TRIF, to triggers canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways that result in distinct immune responses. In most cancer cells, uncontrolled TLR4 signaling modifies the tumor microenvironment to proliferate and evade immune surveillance. By contrast, TLR4 activation can produce antitumor activities, thereby inhibiting tumor growth and enhancing the proper immune response. We review herein recent approaches on the role of the TLR4 signaling pathway and discuss potential candidates for gynecological cancer therapies; among these agents, natural and synthetic compounds have been tested both in vitro and in vivo. Since TLR4 ligands have been investigated as effective immune-adjuvants in the context of these aggressive malignancies, we described how TLR4...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Authors: Shi Y, He R, Yang Y, He Y, Shao K, Zhan L, Wei B Abstract Cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancer are the three most common types of malignant tumor and the leading causes of cancer‑associated death in women. Tumor debulking surgery followed by platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy is the current treatment regime of choice. However, as a result of late diagnosis and chemoresistance, the survival rates of patients with advanced gynecological cancers remains unsatisfactory. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are stable noncoding RNAs that are present in a wide variety of tissue and cell types. With the enhancement o...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
This article summarizes the existing literature and discusses the emerging role of hybrid PET/MRI in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, far, the published literature on the applications of FDG PET/MRI shows that it can have a significant impact on patient management by improving the staging of the cancers compared with PET/CT, influencing clinical decision and treatment strategy. For disease restaging, current literature indicates that PET/MRI performs equivalently to PET/CT. There appears to be a mild-moderate inverse correlation between standard-uptake-value (SUV) and apparent-diffusion-coefficient (ADC) values, which could...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In real-world practice, pembrolizumab was feasible and effective in heavily treated recurrent gynecologic cancer patients with poor performance status who may not be eligible for enrollment in clinical trials. PMID: 32975058 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
Abstract Nanoscale materials have been employed in the past 2 decades in applications such as biosensing, therapeutics and medical diagnostics due to their beneficial optoelectronic properties. In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained attention due to their higher plasmon excitation efficiency than gold nanoparticles, as proved by sharper and stronger plasmon resonance peaks. The current work is focused on utilizing self-assembled DNA-AgNPs on microdevices for the detection of gynecological cancers. Human papilloma virus (HPV) mostly spreads through sexual transmittance and can cause various gynec...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research
Abstract Ephrins are ligands of Eph receptors (Ephs); both of which are sorted into two classes, A and B. There are five types of ephrin-As (ephrin-A1-5) and three types of ephrin-Bs (ephrin-B1-3). Also, there are ten types of EphAs (EphA1-10) and six types of EphBs (EphB1-6). Binding of ephrins to the Eph receptors activates signaling cascades that regulate several biological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Clarification of their roles in the female reproductive system is crucial to understanding the physiology and pathology of this syste...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research
kowska Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a well-known hormone produced by the trophoblast during pregnancy as well as by both trophoblastic and non-trophoblastic tumors. hCG is built from two subunits: α (hCGα) and β (hCGβ). The hormone-specific β subunit is encoded by six allelic genes: CGB3, CGB5, CGB6, CGB7, CGB8, and CGB9, mapped to the 19q13.32 locus. This gene cluster also encompasses the CGB1 and CGB2 genes, which were originally considered to be pseudogenes, but as documented by several studies are transcriptionally active. Even though the protein products of t...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cancer treatment has a significant impact on sexual activity in women with gynecological cancer. Around 30% of participants reported not having any physical contact with their partners since receiving cancer treatment. Sexual rehabilitation counseling that emphasizes alternative forms of sexual expression is suggested. PMID: 32861538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Gynecologic Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
This study reviewed gastrointestinal symptoms of women previously treated for gynaecological cancer and considered whether suggested algorithms could be amended to optimise management for this cohort.MethodsDemographic and clinical data recorded for patients attending a specialist consequences of cancer treatment gastroenterology service prospectively are reported using median and range. The Wilcoxon signed rank test analysed changes in symptoms between initial assessment to discharge from the service.ResultsBetween April 2013 and March 2016, 220 women, with a median age of 57  years (range 24–83 years), tr...
Source: Supportive Care in Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Eicosanoids, bio-active lipid molecules, evoke a multitude of biological effects that directly affect cancer cells and indirectly affect tumor microenvironment. An emerging role has been shown for eicosanoids in the pathogenesis of gynecological malignancies which include cancers of the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterine, and ovary. Eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways start at the metabolism of phospholipids by phospholipase A2 then proceeding to one of three pathways: the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or P450 epoxygenase pathways. The most studied eicosanoid pathways include COX and LOX; however, more evidence is app...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: PM are frequently seen in patients with ovarian cancer. In endometrial and cervical cancer PM are rare. Histological subtype was the strongest predictive factor for PM in all 3 cancers. Better understanding of predictive factors for PM and thus the biological behavior is of paramount importance. PMID: 32808491 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
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