IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 1269: Xenobiotics, Trace Metals and Genetics in the Pathogenesis of Tauopathies

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 1269: Xenobiotics, Trace Metals and Genetics in the Pathogenesis of Tauopathies International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17041269 Authors: Jan Aaseth Aleksandra Buha David R. Wallace Geir Bjørklund Tauopathies are a disease group characterized by either pathological accumulation or release of fragments of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins originating from the central nervous system. The tau hypotheses of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases contain a clinically diverse spectrum of tauopathies. Studies of case records of various tauopathies may reveal clinical phenotype characteristics of the disease. In addition, improved understanding of different tauopathies would disclose environmental factors, such as xenobiotics and trace metals, that can precipitate or modify the progression of the disorder. Important for diagnostics and monitoring of these disorders is a further development of adequate biomarkers, including refined neuroimaging, or proteomics. Our goal is to provide an in-depth review of the current literature regarding the pathophysiological roles of tau proteins and the pathogenic factors leading to various tauopathies, with the perspective of future advances in potential therapeutic strategies.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Kang JH, Kim MH, Lee HJ, Huh JW, Lee HS, Lee DS Abstract High concentrations of glutamate induce neurotoxicity by eliciting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and intracellular Ca2+ influx. The disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) evokes ER stress, ultimately resulting in neuronal dysfunction. Additionally, glutamate participates in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are members of a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from neurotoxic factor-induced apoptosis by scavenging hydrogen...
Source: Free Radical Research - Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research
Abstract Discriminatory drug delivery into target cells is essential to effectively elicit the drug activity and to avoid off-target side effects; however, transporting drugs across the cell membrane is difficult due to factors such as molecular size, hydrophilicity, intercellular adhesiveness, and efflux transporters, particularly, in the brain capillary endothelial cells. Drug delivery into the brain is blocked by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, developing drugs for the central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge. The approach based on receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) can overcome this imp...
Source: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) Source Type: research
(University of Barcelona) An article published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry shows a new family of molecules with high affinity to join imidazoline receptors, which are altered in the brain of those patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's. According to the preclinical study, the merge of these specific ligands to I2 receptors improves cognitive skills and some biomarkers which are indicators of brain neurodegenerative processes in murine models.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsThese results encourage further studies on the enamide scaffold as potential drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Authors: Khosravi S, Harner ME Abstract Mitochondria perform a plethora of functions in various cells of different tissues. Their architecture differs remarkably, for instance in neurons versus steroidogenic cells. Furthermore, aberrant mitochondrial architecture results in mitochondrial dysfunction. This indicates strongly that mitochondrial architecture and function are intimately linked. Therefore, a deep knowledge about the determinants of mitochondrial architecture and their function on a molecular level is of utmost importance. In the past decades, various proteins and protein complexes essential for formatio...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
In conclusion, the different severities of glaucoma do not alter the incidence of subsequent dementia.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract As the population ages, the incidence and prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders will continue to increase. Persons with neurodegenerative disease frequently experience sleep disorders, which not only affect quality of life, but potentially accelerate progression of the disease. Unfortunately, pharmacological interventions are often futile or have adverse effects. Therefore, investigation of non-pharmacological interventions has the potential to expand the treatment landscape for these disorders. The last decade has observed increasing recognition of the beneficial role of exercise in brain diseases, a...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
We present a hybrid approach which implements a multi-objective genetic algorithm, where input consists of centrality measures based on various relational biological evidence types merged into a complex network. Multiple objective settings and parameters are studied including the development of a new exchange methodology, safe dealer-based crossover. Successful results with respect to breast cancer and Parkinson's disease compared to previous techniques and popular known databases are shown. In addition, the newly developed methodology is also successfully applied to Alzheimer's disease, further demonstrating its flexibili...
Source: Biosystems - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biosystems Source Type: research
This study, for the first time, shows that transplantation of non-autologous mitochondria from healthy skeletal muscle cells into normal cardiomyocytes leads to short-term improvement of bioenergetics indicating "supercharged" state. However, over time these improved effects disappear, which suggests transplantation of mitochondria may have a potential application in settings where there is an acute stress. Outlining Some of the Science Behind Partial Reprogramming at Turn.bio https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/03/outlining-some-of-the-science-behind-partial-reprogramming-at-turn-bio/ Tur...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS DEGs, including SORT1, CRYAB, PSMA1, and SDHA may have roles in the pathogenesis of PD through the MAPK, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways. PMID: 32210219 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
More News: Alzheimer's | Brain | Environmental Health | Genetics | International Medicine & Public Health | Neurology | Parkinson's Disease | Study