Clinical and translational challenges in thyroid cancers.

CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL CHALLENGES IN THYROID CANCERS. Curr Med Chem. 2020 Feb 14;: Authors: Hernando J, Ros J, Arroyo A, Capdevila J Abstract Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and it accounts for 1% of all newly diagnosed tumors. Approximately 10% of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) and 30% with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) will not be cured with locoregional treatment and will develop metastatic disease. In addition, one of the most aggressive solid tumors can arise from the thyroid gland, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, with a median overall survival of less than 6 months. Currently, only four drugs are approved for the treatment of DTC and MTC and several unmet needs are focusing the scientific discussions, including the resistant setting, the off-target side effects that may reduce the efficacy and the molecular knowledge-based combinations. In this review we aim to discuss the current molecular landscape and treatment of thyroid cancers, and the ongoing clinical and translational research lines focusing on new drugs and drug combinations to improve the inhibition of driver mutations, such as BRAF and RET, and how systemic therapies that improved outcomes of other cancer types, like immunotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, may play a role in the future management of advanced thyroid cancers. PMID: 32056516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Acquired overt thyroid toxicity and above median ATAb levels during anti-PD-1 treatment are associated with improved PFS and OS. Additionally, our results suggest that ATAb levels at baseline are of clinical relevance for PFS and OS. PMID: 32151195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
Abstract Immune escape is one of the main reasons for the rapid progression of cancer and the poor efficacy of immunotherapy. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is usually accompanied by intra-tumoral lymphocytic infiltration. The mechanisms regulating this tumor associated immune response or its evasion are not well understood. The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related proteins A (MICA) and its receptor the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) are major executers of the anti-tumor defense. This work aimed to study the expression and regulation of MICA-NKG2D and its association with the lymphocytic...
Source: Experimental and Molecular Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Exp Mol Pathol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Giusy Elia, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Ilaria Ruffilli, Gilda Varricchi, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractAnticancer immunotherapy, in the form of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), is a paradigm shift that has transformed the care of patients with different types of solid and hematologic cancers. The most notable improvements have been seen in patients with melanoma, non-small-cell lung, bladder, renal, cervical, u...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Yicheng Ni Cancer remains a major cause of death globally. Given its relapsing and fatal features, curing cancer seems to be something hardly possible for the majority of patients. In view of the development in cancer therapies, this article summarizes currently available cancer therapeutics and cure potential by cancer type and stage at diagnosis, based on literature and database reviews. Currently common cancer therapeutics include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, treatment with curative intent by these methods are mainly eligible for patients with localized diseas...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: KamiƄska-Winciorek G, Cybulska-Stopa B, Lugowska I, Ziobro M, Rutkowski P Abstract The introduction of immunotherapy into the treatment of cancer patients has revolutionised the oncological approach and significantly improved patient survival. The key drugs are immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), whose mechanism of action is to elicit immune response against cancer cell antigens. Three types of CPIs are currently used and approved: an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab; and anti-PD-L1 antibodies: atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab. CPIs have been widely...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common thyroid cancer and is frequently encountered in clinical practice. The incidence of DTC has increased significantly over the past three decades. Surgical resection, radioactive iodine (RAI), and levothyroxine suppression therapy remain the primary modalities for DTC treatment. Active surveillance for low-risk thyroid cancer may be an alternative to immediate surgery for appropriately selected patients. Patient characteristics influence treatment selection and intensity. In the subset of patients with progressive distant metastatic disease, not amenable to treatment wit...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Rusan Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, but devastating disease. Despite multimodal approaches combining surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, ATC is associated with a dire prognosis, with a median overall survival of only three to ten months. Novel treatments are thus urgently needed. Recent efforts towards the characterization of the molecular landscape of ATC have led to the identification of pro-oncogenic targetable alterations, lending promise for novel targeted therapeutic approaches. This systematic review summarizes the results of phase II clinical trials of targeted therapy in ATC, providing...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
We describe a case of thyrotoxicosis secondary to a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab. A 30- year-old female was started on pembrolizumab immunotherapy for stage III small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type. Thirteen days after her second cycle of therapy, she presented with symptoms consistent with thyrotoxicosis. A thyroiditis was diagnosed by thyroid function tests and ultra sonography. She was originally treated with prednisone and metoprolol for possible Grave’s disease. Pertechnetate thyroid scan was more consistent with thyroiditis secondary to pembrolizumab...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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