Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 1072: Applications of Graphene Quantum Dots in Biomedical Sensors

Sensors, Vol. 20, Pages 1072: Applications of Graphene Quantum Dots in Biomedical Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s20041072 Authors: Mansuriya Altintas Due to the proliferative cancer rates, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases and a plethora of infections across the globe, it is essential to introduce strategies that can rapidly and specifically detect the ultralow concentrations of relevant biomarkers, pathogens, toxins and pharmaceuticals in biological matrices. Considering these pathophysiologies, various research works have become necessary to fabricate biosensors for their early diagnosis and treatment, using nanomaterials like quantum dots (QDs). These nanomaterials effectively ameliorate the sensor performance with respect to their reproducibility, selectivity as well as sensitivity. In particular, graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which are ideally graphene fragments of nanometer size, constitute discrete features such as acting as attractive fluorophores and excellent electro-catalysts owing to their photo-stability, water-solubility, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and lucrativeness that make them favorable candidates for a wide range of novel biomedical applications. Herein, we reviewed about 300 biomedical studies reported over the last five years which entail the state of art as well as some pioneering ideas with respect to the prominent role of GQDs, especially in the development of optical, electrochemical and photoelec...
Source: Sensors - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Authors: Pringle S, Wang X, Vissink A, Bootsma H, Kroese FGM Abstract The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for treatment of cancers is unfortunately coupled with a broad panoply of side effects, related to non-specific activation of the immune system. One such side effect is the development of sicca complaints. This culminates in a proportion of patients who, according to the ACR-EULAR 2016 criteria, can be classified as suffering from the autoimmune disease primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Although salivary gland (SG) loss of function is often seen after ICI therapy, the similarities with ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) have long been viewed as mere housekeeping proteins and have therefore often been overlooked in drug discovery. However, recent findings have revealed that many aaRSs have noncanonical functions, and several of the aaRSs have been linked to autoimmune diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders. Deciphering these roles has been challenging because of a lack of tools to enable their study. To help solve this problem, we have generated recombinant high-affinity antibodies for a collection of thirteen cytoplasmic and one mitochondrial aaRSs. Selected domains of these proteins were produced ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Editors ' Picks Source Type: research
We present a case of LGI1 encephalitis only partially responsive to immunotherapy with eventual complete resolution after resection of a squamous cell lung carcinoma.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Dystonia, Paraneoplastic syndrome, All Epilepsy/Seizures Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research
Women and men have striking differences in their autoimmune disease risk, their predisposition to and prognosis with various cancers, and their ability to respond to some infections —including the novel coronavirus. New research offers a potential explanation for these distinctions: sex-based differences in neutrophils, humans’ most common circulating immune cells.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Interferon-induced protein 44 (IFI44) containing a guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP) binding domain was reported to play a significant role in the immune response to autoimmune disease. However, its roles involved in cancers remain unclear. Here, we detected the expression of IFI44 in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-cancer and generally explored the effect of IFI44 on immune infiltration in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The results displayed that IFI44 was mainly located in the cytoplasm and overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) samples compared with normal tissues. Survival analysis exhi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Halczuk KM, Boguszewska K, Urbaniak SK, Szewczuk M, Karwowski BT Abstract The thyroid is not necessary to sustain life. However, thyroid hormones (TH) strongly affect the human body. Functioning of the thyroid gland affects the reproductive capabilities of women and men, as well as fertilization and maintaining a pregnancy. For the synthesis of TH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is necessary. From the chemical point of view, TH is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) and serves as an oxidative stress (OS) promoter. H2O2 concentration in the thyroid gland is much higher than in other tissues. Therefore, the thyroid is...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research
Abstract The non-classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-G could be generally considered as a potent tolerogenic molecule, which modulates immune responses. HLA-G due to the immunosuppressive properties may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections related to the liver. HLA-G may display two distinct activities in the pathological conditions so that it could be protective in the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases or could be suppressive of the immune system in the infections or cancers. HLA-G might be used as a novel therapeutic target for liver diseases in the future. Indeed, new therapeutic age...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Authors: Khalil H, Abd ElHady A, Elawdan KA, Mohamed D, Mohamed DD, Abd El Maksoud AI, El-Chennawi FA, El-Fikiy B, El-Sayed IH Abstract Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that incorporates lysosomal-degradation to maintain cell survival and energy sources. In recent decades, the role of autophagy has implicated in the initiation and development of many diseases that affect humanity. Among these diseases are autoimmune diseases and neurodegenerative diseases, which connected with the lacking autophagy. Other diseases are connected with the increasing levels of autophagy such as cancers and infectious disea...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that involves multiple immune cells. Due to its complex pathogenesis, the effectiveness of traditional treatment methods is limited. Many patients have developed resistance to conventional treatment or are not sensitive to steroid and immunosuppressant therapy, and so emerging therapeutic antibodies have become an alternative and have been shown to work well in many patients with moderate and severe SLE. This review summarizes the biological agents that are in the preclinical and clinical trial study of SLE. In addition to the various monoclonal antibodies that ha...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Transmembrane protein 166 (TMEM166) is a lysosomal/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein found in different species where it functions as a regulator of programmed cell death through autophagy and apoptosis. It is expressed in a variety of normal tissues and organs, and it is involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, including cancers, infection, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies indicated that TMEM166 is associated with autophagosomal membrane development. TMEM166 can cause lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to the r...
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research
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