Blockade of Nogo-A/NgR1 inhibits autophagic activation and prevents secondary neuronal damage in the thalamus after focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats

This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Nogo-A/Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) in autophagic activation in the ipsilateral thalamus after cerebral infarction. Focal neocortical infarction was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus was assessed by Nissl staining and immunostaining. The expression of Nogo-A, NgR1, Rho-A and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) as well as autophagic flux were evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. The roles of Nogo-A-NgR1 signaling in autophagic activation were determined by intraventricular delivery of an NgR1 antagonist peptide, NEP1-40, at 24 h after MCAO. The results showed that Nogo-A and NgR1 overexpression temporally coincided with marked increases in the levels of Beclin1, LC3-II and sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62 in the ipsilateral thalamus at seven and fourteen days after MCAO. In contrast, NEP1-40 treatment significantly reduced the expression of Rho-A and ROCK1 which was accompanied by marked reductions of LC3-II conversion as well as the levels of Beclin1 and SQSTM1/p62. Furthermore, NEP1-40 treatment significantly reduced neuronal loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral thalamus, and accelerated somatosensory recovery at the observed time-points after MCAO. These results suggest that blockade of Nogo-A-NgR1 signaling inhibits autophagic activation, attenuates secondary neuronal damage in the ipsilateral thalamus, and...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Stroke is one of the major causes of chronic disability worldwide and increasing efforts have focused on studying brain repair and recovery after stroke. Following stroke, the primary injury site can disrupt functional connections in nearby and remotely connected brain regions, resulting in the development of secondary injuries that may impede long-term functional recovery. In particular, secondary degenerative injury occurs in the connected ipsilesional thalamus following a cortical stroke. Although secondary thalamic injury was first described decades ago, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. We performed a sy...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundChina bears the largest global stroke burden, yet little is known about its rates in Chongqing, southwest China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors for stroke in Chongqing, and to provide evidence for improved formulation of targeted primary preventive measures for stroke.MethodsIn 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Nan ’an district, Chongqing. Participants responded to a questionnaire surveying general information and common risk factors for stroke, and related physical examinations were conducted.ResultsOf 25,000 people aged ≥ 40 years who were...
Source: Journal of Public Health - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
AbstractTreatment and prognosis of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may differ by the experience of fall or bone fracture. However, their current status is still unclear. From our institute database between 2010 and 2015, 674 AF patients with age  ≥ 70 years were selected and were divided into those who experienced fall or fracture during the observation period (F/F group;n = 49) and those who did not (non-F/F group;n = 625). We compared the treatment and prognosis between the 2 groups. Patients in the F/F group were older (79 vs 76 years,P 
Source: Heart and Vessels - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Ischemic stroke damages the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which leads to brain edema and increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Proteasome inhibition has been found to protect the BBB against cerebral ischemia by suppressing neuroinflammation-mediated matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9) activation. We recently showed that ginsenoside Rd (Rd), a major active ingredient of Panax ginseng, could suppress proteasome-mediated inflammation and be efficient for treating ischemic stroke but downstream mechanisms were still unidentified. For this purpose, Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemic injury....
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions In this single-center cohort study, markers of CVT severity were associated with increased odds of cTn elevation; further investigation is needed to elucidate causality and significance.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Other cerebrovascular disease/ Stroke, All Clinical Neurology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, Cerebral venous thrombosis Research Source Type: research
We describe a new method to induce focal brain damage targeting the motor cortex to study damage to the descending motor tracts in the non-human primate. Stereotaxic injection of malonate into the primary motor cortex produced a focal lesion in middle-aged marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Assessment of sensorimotor function using a neurological scale and testing of forelimb dexterity and strength lasted a minimum of 12  weeks. Lesion evolution was followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h, 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks post-injury and before sacrifice for immunohistochemistry. Our model produced consistent les...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract RATIONALE: Large decreases in PaCO2 that occur when initiating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with respiratory failure may cause cerebral vasoconstriction and compromise brain tissue perfusion. OBJECTIVES: To determine if the magnitude of PaCO2 correction upon ECMO initiation is associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications in patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter international retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry, including adults with respiratory failure on a...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory reactions induced by acute ischemia and found that pyroptosis occurred after acute ischemia bothin vivo andin vitro, as determined by interleukin-1 β, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. The early inflammation resulted in irreversible ischemic injury, indicating that it deserves thorough investigation. Meanwhile, acute ischemia decreased the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) protein levels, and increased the TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) protein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In further exploration, both Sirt1 suppression and TRAF6 activation were ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
International guidelines recommend carotid revascularization within 14  days for patients with a symptomatic transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke event. However, significant delays in care persist, with only 9% of outpatients and 36% of inpatients in Ontario meeting this target. The study objective was to explore the influence of health system factors on carotid revascularization timelines.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to evaluate the N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) diagnostic value for NVAF and the clinical outcome of AIS patients.
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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