Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and their potential immune modulatory functions

Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Shiying Shao, QinQin Xu, Xuefeng Yu, Ruping Pan, Yong ChenAbstractDipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors (DPP4is) are oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through inhibiting the degradation of incretin peptides. Numerous investigations have been focused on the effects of DPP4is on glucose homeostasis. However, there are limited evidences demonstrating their Potential modulatory functions in the immune system. DPP4, originally known as the lymphocyte cell surface protein CD26, is widely expressed in many types of immune cells including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages; and regulate the functions of these cells. In addition, DPP4 is capable of modulating plenty of cytokines, chemokines and peptide hormones. Accordingly, DPP4/CD26 is speculated to be involved in various immune/inflammatory diseases and DPP4is may become a new drug class applied in these diseases. This review focuses on the regulatory effects of DPP4is on immune functions and their possible underlying mechanisms. Further clinical studies will be necessitated to fully evaluate the administration of DPP4is in diabetic patients with or without immune diseases.
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Authors: Davis EM, Sandoval DA Abstract GLP-1 was described as an incretin over 30 years ago. GLP-1 is encoded by the preproglucagon gene (Gcg), which is expressed in the intestine, the pancreas, and the central nervous system. GLP-1 activates GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) on the β-cell to induce insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. GLP-1 also inhibits α-cell secretion of glucagon. As few, if any, GLP-1r are expressed on α-cells, indirect regulation, via β- or δ-cell products has been thought to be the primary mechanism by which GLP-1 inhibits glucagon secretion. However, recent w...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - Category: Physiology Tags: Compr Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist and incretin mimetic used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been shown to have a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which liraglutide promotes angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of liraglutide, and assessed by wound healing assay and tube formation assay as measures of angiogenesis. We found that liraglutide at 10 and 100 nmol/L greatly promoted the angiogenic ability of HUVECs. Ne...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
Purpose of review Among the gastrointestinal hormones, the incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 have attracted interest because of their importance for the development and therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity. New agonists and formulations of particularly the GLP-1 receptor have been developed recently showing great therapeutic efficacy for both diseases. Recent findings The status of the currently available GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) is described, and their strengths and weaknesses analyzed. Their ability to also reduce cardiovascular and renal risk is describe...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Abhinav Sharma, Subodh VermaAbstractThe growing global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus confers significant morbidity and mortality in addition to significant cost to local health-care systems. In recent years, 2 classes of therapies have shown some promise in reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events: 1) glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and 2) sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. The mechanisms whereby these therapies reduce the risk of adverse CV outcomes are emerging. Both cl...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Obesity and related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), alarmingly grow up in the modern society thus representing a serious issue for endocrinology and medicine. Obesity is the major risk factor for T2DM [1], however, not all obese individuals ultimately develop T2DM. Nevertheless, mechanisms linking obesity to T2DM are being extensively studied.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
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Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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Source: Diabetes and Metabolism Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes Metab J Source Type: research
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