Current Approaches in the Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infections and the Situation in Turkey.

[Current Approaches in the Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infections and the Situation in Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2020 Jan;54(1):171-190 Authors: Şahiner F Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are common in all populations and CMV seroprevalence in women of childbearing age is in the range of 45-100% worldwide. CMV is the most common cause of congenital infections and is associated with fetal development defects and hearing loss. The risk of congenital infection is directly related to maternal immunity and is between 30-40% and 1-2% range in primary and non-primary infections, respectively. Only 5-10% of newborns with congenital infection are symptomatic at birth. Nearly 4% of these babies can die early in life, while 40-60% have to live with permanent sequelae such as sensorineural hearing loss, cognitive deficit and visual impairment. Asymptomatic newborns including those born from mothers with non-primary infections are also at risk for long-term sequelae. These sequelae often develop in the first 1-2 years of life and may extend up to 5-7 years, but the severity of damage reduces in time. CMV seroprevalence in women of childbearing age and pregnant women in Turkey is between 96% and 99.8%. Until recently, our knowledge about the frequency of congenital CMV infections in Turkey was derived from the studies based on the maternal screening tests. These studies, which were far from reflecting the true prevalence of con...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

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Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Monica Parodi1, Herman Favoreel2, Giovanni Candiano3, Silvia Gaggero4, Simona Sivori4,5, Maria Cristina Mingari1,4,5, Lorenzo Moretta6, Massimo Vitale1 and Claudia Cantoni4,5,7* 1Immunology Operative Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium 3Laboratory of Molecular Nephrology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy 4Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy 5Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Gerna G, Lilleri D Abstract In recent years, one of the main objectives in the field of medical virology has been the development of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccine that can prevent congenital HCMV infection in the offspring of pregnant women as well as systemic and end-organ disease in immunocompromised (AIDS and transplanted) patients. Major obstacles to the development of an efficacious HCMV vaccine are lack of protection provided by immune memory cells against HCMV re-activation (replication relapse of a latent strain following primary infection) and HCMV re-infection (infection of a seropositiv...
Source: New Microbiologica - Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research
FINDINGSInfants born to HIV-positive mothers had high rates of congenital cytomegalovirus, or CMV. Infants who also were infected before birth by the virus that causes AIDS were especially prone to CMV infection.The researchers found that 23 percent of the infants who became infected with HIV during the mother ’s pregnancy also were infected with CMV; 18 percent who were infected with HIV either during pregnancy or birth acquired congenital CMV; and 4.9 percent who were exposed to HIV but remained uninfected with that virus also acquired congenital CMV.Overall, HIV-infected infants were four times as likely to have a...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
HIV-positive women with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, in their urine at the time of labor and delivery are more than five times likelier than HIV-positive women without CMV to transmit HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, to their infants, according to a UCLA-led study.The research also found that they are nearly 30 times likelier to transmit cytomegalovirus to their infants.Dr. Karin Nielsen, a professor of clinical pediatrics in the division of infectious diseases at theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, is the senior author of the study, which was published today in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.“The findi...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Editor’s note: The final 2018 Letter To Issuers In The Federally Facilitated Maketplaces, discussed below, was issued in conjunction with the final 2018 Benefit and Payment Parameters rule, discussed here and here. On December 16, 2016, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released its final 2018 Letter to Issuers in the Federally Facilitated Marketplaces (FFM). CMS releases a letter each year to insurers that offer coverage through the FFM or through state-based marketplaces that use the Healthcare.gov platform (SBM-FP), laying out the ground ...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Following the ACA Insurance and Coverage Payment Policy Source Type: blogs
Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers. Methods. Between 1993 and 1998 pregnant, HIV-infected women in Nairobi, Kenya, were randomly assigned to breastfeed or formula-feed their infants in an HIV transmission study. Women were allocated equally between treatment arms, and the study was not blinded. The primary endpoint of this nested study was time to infant CMV infection. Results.&...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: HIV/AIDS Source Type: research
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