Poly(I:C) augments inactivated influenza virus-chitosan nanovaccine induced cell mediated immune response in pigs vaccinated intranasally

In conclusion, coadministration of CS NPs-poly(I:C) with CS NPs-KAg augmented the cross-reactive specific HI titers and the cell-mediated immune responses in pigs.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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In conclusion, it is necessary for the well-being of humans and pigs to closely monitor swine influenza viruses containing avian-like hemagglutinin with PA and NP genes from 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, 15 H1N1, one H1N2, and four H3N2 strains were isolated from a total of 4080 nasal swabs which were collected from 20 pig farms in three provinces in China between 2016 and 2019. All the isolates were clustered into four genotypes. A new genotype represented by the H1N2 strain was found, whose fragments came from the triple reassortant H1N2 lineage, classical swine influenza virus (cs-H1N1) lineage, and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus lineage. A/Sw/HB/HG394/2018(H1N1), which was clustered into the cs-H1N1 lineage, showed a close relationship with the 1918 pandemic virus. Mutations determining the host range specific...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
H. E. Everett et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. The RT-qPCR assays presented 100% (95.7-100, CI 95%) of diagnostic sensitivity in the analysis of 85 IAVs, previously characterized by sequencing. The limits of detection ranged from 5.09 × 101 to 5.09 × 103 viral RNA copies/μL. For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtyp...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
This study suggests that preventing contact among wild species and swine and using an adaptation area for animals before entry into the herd can be strategies to control the influenza virus in breeding herds.
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) causes an important respiratory disease in mammals and birds leading to concerns in animal production industry and public health. Usually, antibodies produced in mammals are employed in diagnostic tests. However, due to animal welfare concerns, technical advantages and the high cost of production, alternatives to the production of antibodies in mammals have been investigated. The aim of this study was to produce egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) in laying hens against a highly conserved protein (nucleoprotein- NP) of IAV and to evaluate the application of anti-NP IgY antibodies in viru...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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