Novel Surrogate Markers of CNS Inflammation in CSF in the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis

Conclusions: Thirty-two AE patients were recruited over 18 months. Twenty-one viral controls, 10 NI controls, and five other autoimmune neurological disease controls (AOND) were also included in the analysis. Our study found that conventional markers: presence of CSF monocytosis, oligoclonal bands, anti-neuronal immunofluorescence, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes could be suggestive of AE, but these investigations were neither sensitive nor specific. Promising novel makers of autoimmune encephalitis were the CSF cytokines IL-21 and IP10 which may provide better delineation between viral infections and autoimmune encephalitis than conventional markers, potentially leading to more immediate diagnosis and management of these patients.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by bacterial genusBrucella, a Gram ‑negative bacterium, and continued to be a health problem in endemic areas. Anti ‑N‑methyl‑d‑aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease which can lead to status epilepticus.  A 19 ‑year‑old male patient was referred to our hospital with status epilepticus. The diagnosis ofbrucellosis was confirmed about 2 weeks before.The brain magnetic resonance imaging was  normal. Lumbar puncture was performed, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was in normal limits. The  patient was treated with...
Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: Seizures and encephalopathy are not rare in MOG encephalomyelitis, and are commonly associated with cortical and subcortical brain lesions. MOG-encephalomyelitis often presents with clinical meningoencephalitis symptoms and abnormal CSF findings mimicking central nervous system infection in pediatric and young adult patients. Background Immunoglobulin-G against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) is considered a potential demyelinating disease-associated autoantibody. Previous experimental studies have established MOG-IgG as a pathogenic antigen rather than an epiphenomenal bystander or a secon...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Some patients with psychiatric syndromes and increased ANA titers may suffer from psychiatric variants of SLE, even if the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE are not met. Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a subtype of SLE with isolated CNS involvement remains unclear. Regardless, early diagnosis and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment are essential steps in preventing further disease progression and organ damage. Intrathecal ANAs with extractable nuclear antigen differentiation may be a more sensitiv...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is often challenging, and may be misdiagnosed as epileptic disorders or viral encephalitis. Autoimmune epilepsy has a strong association with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, autoimmune epilepsy was reported to present with complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). In our case, we present a different seizure type of tonic seizure in autoimmune epilepsy caused by SLE, which has not been reported, and it will provide with a new understanding of autoimmune epil...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study shows a wide diversity of etiologies of LE in Morocco with essentially an acute mode of onset of symptoms.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
ConclusionOur case supports the efficacy of immunotherapies for NORSE even though it does not manifest definite evidence for autoimmune background. Clinicians should consider these immunotherapies for NORSE as early as possible, because this condition is associated with high mortality and morbidity owing to prolonged seizure activity and long-term intensive care including general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation.
Source: Journal of Intensive Care - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
We report a case of an adolescent male who presented with all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy and had been misdiagnosed with epilepsy, psychosis, and depression. We discuss various issues regarding narcolepsy in children and adolescents. Keywords: narcolepsy, adolescence, misdiagnosis Innov Clin Neurosci. 2017;14(9–10):20–23 Introduction Narcolepsy is an uncommon sleep cycle disorder characterized by the tetrad of chronic excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.1 The cardinal symptom of paroxysmal sleep is seen in all patients, whereas other symptoms such as ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Report Current Issue adolescence misdiagnosis narcolepsy Source Type: research
Summary ObjectiveRecent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE‐AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new‐onset TLE‐AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. MethodsWe reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new‐onset (
Source: Epilepsia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Full ‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
Summary ObjectiveRecent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE‐AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new‐onset TLE‐AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. MethodsWe reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new‐onset (
Source: Epilepsia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Full ‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
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