The value of Bayesian penalized likelihood reconstruction for improving lesion conspicuity of malignant lung tumors on 18 F-FDG PET/CT: comparison with ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction incorporating time-of-flight model and point spread function correction

AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the value of Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) reconstruction for improving lesion conspicuity of malignant lung tumors on18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) as compared with the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) model and point-spread-function (PSF) correction.MethodsTwenty-nine patients with primary or metastatic lung cancers who underwent18F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively studied. PET images were reconstructed with OSEM  + TOF, OSEM + TOF + PSF, and BPL with noise penalty strengthβ-value of 200, 400, 600, and 800. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was determined in normal liver parenchyma. Lung lesion conspicuity was evaluated in 50 lung lesions by using a 4-point scale (0, no visible; 1, poor; 2, good; 3, excellent conspicuity). Two observers were independently asked to choose the most preferred reconstruction for detecting the lung lesions on a per-patient level. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in each of the 50 lung lesions.ResultsLiver SNR on the images reconstructed by BPL withβ-value of 600 and 800 (17.8  ± 3.7 and 22.5 ± 4.6, respectively) was significantly higher than that by OSEM + TOF + PSF (15.0 ± 3.4,p 
Source: Annals of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

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We report a case of the pathologically evaluated antitumor effect of pembrolizumab, a programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, in G-CSF-producing bladder cancer. A 53-year-old male patient underwent 4 courses chemotherapy with a combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin before a radical cystectomy with ileal neobladder. Four months after the surgery, local recurrence was detected in the pelvis and therefore pembrolizumab was used. One week after its administration, the patient showed increased mucus in his urine. A computed tomography scan and cystoscopy revealed a fistula between the ileum and the neoblad...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Conclusion18F-FDG PET/CT had a high diagnostic efficiency for discrimination of AGC and PGL, especially between DLBCL and other pathological subtypes. Visual assessment used to evaluate18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity could help to distinguish the two types of tumors. In addition, our innovative method of measuring the heterogeneity of18F-FDG uptake —namely, SUVmax-d—could contribute to identification of the two tumor types and should have its significance clarified by future studies.
Source: Abdominal Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusions L-SURmax showed the most powerful predictive performance than the other PET parameters in predicting occult lymph node metastasis. The combination of three independent risk factors (carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19 fragment, and L-SURmax) can effectively predict occult lymph node metastasis in clinical N0 non–small cell lung cancer patients.
Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The incidence and magnitude of indicators of radiographic response of pancreatic cancer to systemic chemotherapy and (chemo)radiation administered prior to anticipated pancreatectomy are unclear. METHODS: Sequential computed tomography scans of 226 patients with localized pancreatic cancer who received chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRINOX) or gemcitabine and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (GA) with or without (chemo)radiation and who subsequently underwent surgery with curative intent from January 2010 to December 2018 at Th...
Source: Ann Oncol - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Ann Surg Oncol Source Type: research
AbstractLymph node assessment is an essential component of the treatment of lung cancer. Identification of the correct “N” stage is important for staging which in turn determines treatment. Assessment of lymph nodes may be accomplished using imaging with CT scan and PET–CT, invasive techniques such as mediastinoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or endoscopic ultrasoun d fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Ultimately, regardless of any pre-resection assessment, lymph nodes must be assessed at the time of resection. The question to be addressed in this report is the ...
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Endoscopy DOI: 10.1055/a-1140-3017The following recommendations should only be applied after a thorough diagnostic evaluation including a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. 1 ESGE recommends colonic stenting to be reserved for patients with clinical symptoms and radiological signs of malignant large-bowel obstruction, without signs of perforation. ESGE does not recommend prophylactic stent placement.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence. 2 ESGE recommends stenting as a bridge to surgery to be discussed, within a shared decision-making process, as a treatment option in patients with potentially cur...
Source: Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Guideline Source Type: research
AbstractAir leakage is a common complication after pulmonary resection, which is usually caused by direct lung damage during surgery. Herein, we describe a case in which a pulmonary cyst developed rapidly in the right lower lobe and ruptured 10  days after right upper lobectomy. A 49‐year‐old man, who was a heavy smoker, underwent thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy for primary lung cancer. No air leakage was observed postoperatively, and the chest drain tube was removed on postoperative day 1. Although his postoperative course was u neventful for more than a week, extensive subcutaneous emphysema developed unex...
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
This Viewpoint describes infection prevention and control measures implemented in the care of patients with cancer, including use of orally administered anticancer drugs where possible, routine blood tests and lung CT scans, and on-site temperature tests, among others.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
To identify sub-volumes that may predict treatment response to definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) using parametric-response-mapping (PRM) of co-registered positron-emission-tomography (PET) and dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed-tomography (CT) in locally advanced cervical carcinoma.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Imaging of head and neck cancer with 18F-PARPi is feasible and safe. 18F-PARPi detects primary and metastatic lesions, and retention in tumors is longer than in healthy tissues. PMID: 32245901 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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