Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins

AbstractWhat impact does formal punishment have on antisocial conduct —does it deter or promote it? The findings from a long line of research on the labeling tradition indicate formal punishments have the opposite‐of‐intended consequence of promoting future misbehavior. In another body of work, the results show support for deterrence‐based hypotheses that puni shment deters future misbehavior. So, which is it? We draw on a nationally representative sample of British adolescent twins from the Environmental Risk (E‐Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study to perform a robust test of the deterrence versus labeling question. We leverage a powerful research design in w hich twins can serve as the counterfactual for their co‐twin, thereby ruling out many sources of confounding that have likely impacted prior studies. The pattern of findings provides support for labeling theory, showing that contact with the justice system—through spending a night in jail/prison , being issued an anti‐social behaviour order (ASBO), or having an official record—promotes delinquency. We conclude by discussing the impact these findings may have on criminologists’ and practitioners’ perspective on the role of the juvenile justice system in society.
Source: Criminology - Category: Criminology Authors: Tags: ARTICLE Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to explore students' perception on the importance of "doing" hematology experiments. The first-year medical students of the 2017-18 batch filled out a semistructured questionnaire at the end of the course of hematology practicals. The questionnaire captured their perception of the importance of doing hematology practicals on their own blood, the assessment of the same, and its value in medical training. Students indicated that doing practicals individually by pricking themselves was a necessary part of physiology teaching (n = 126 responses: 43 men, 83 women; 86%). They felt that i...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
Abstract A central goal of science education is to help students develop higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of life. Accordingly, science instructors are now urged to craft their classrooms such that they serve as not only spaces for disseminating information, but also an arena through which students are encouraged to think scientifically and develop critical-thinking skills. This project aimed to develop a workbook that helps postsecondary students learn endocrinology and engages them in critical thinking. Each of the five chapters focuses on a different topic rooted within core bi...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
Abstract Flipped classroom teaching has been used by many educators to promote active learning in higher education. This andragogy is thought to increase student engagement by making them more accountable for their learning and increase time on task in the classroom. While there are several systematic reviews that point to improved student results, it remains unclear if flipped classrooms have positive learning effects in physiology education. Flipped classroom teaching was introduced in two advanced physiology subjects (advanced neuroscience, semester 1, and cardiorespiratory and renal physiology, semester 2). Ch...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
Abstract The possible benefits of using music to enhance learning of STEM content are numerous, diverse, and largely unproven. We sought to determine which (if any) of these possible benefits are commonly experienced by undergraduate students and are thus especially worthy of further investigation. Four hundred ninety-three students in nine physiology courses at two midsized American universities rated the usefulness of short instructor-penned mathematical physiology songs and explained in their own words why each song would or would not be a useful study aid. The students collectively perceived the usefulness of ...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
PMID: 32057264 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
Abstract Experiential learning experiences (ELEs), opportunities for students to apply knowledge and skills critically in a hands-on environment, are fundamental to the apprenticeship model of biological and biotechnological sciences. ELEs enhance student-learning gains, increase career readiness, and provide important networking opportunities. However, students do not often recognize the benefits of ELEs. Reflection is a highly effective tool to articulate learning gains and connect new content with established knowledge. Therefore, senior undergraduate students (n = 23), majoring in biological sciences or biotec...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
r G Abstract Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that offers students the opportunity to develop self-regulatory strategies as an explicit learning outcome. As a multifaceted PBL environment, the guidance of tutors is important to students as they develop self-regulatory learning (SRL) skills and self-efficacy, the most focused motivational element in SRL. The present study examines the relationship between academic achievement and PBL self-efficacy levels, as well as the role played by tutors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with third- year medical students (n = 257; 75%). The SRL perce...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
Abstract In conventional team-based learning (TBL), readiness assurance test (RAT) items must be formatted as free-standing multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Even in the application phase of TBL, all teams must work on the same, significant problem and be required to make a specific choice and simultaneously report them to the whole class, which the MCQ format with predetermined answer choices allows. However, the founders of the TBL method rightly emphasize that the intended learning outcomes of a course using TBL underlie the design of the various components of TBL. The main point of this brief essay is to sugge...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research
The objective of this systematic review is to analyze types of needle-free connectors and open systems and their effects on central line-associated bloodstream infection rates and other adverse outcomes through a research protocol consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews' recommendations. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases of systematic reviews were searched for relevant comparative studies published from January 2000 to September 2017. Eighteen studies compared central line-associated bloodstream infection (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Netwo...
Source: The Journal of Vascular Access - Category: Surgery Tags: J Vasc Access Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study would argue for the feasibility and effectiveness of subcutaneous wash-out in the treatment of chemotherapy extravasations. PMID: 32056485 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Vascular Access - Category: Surgery Tags: J Vasc Access Source Type: research
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