A molecular barcode to inform the geographical origin and transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax malaria

by Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Jody Phelan, Debbie Nolder, Jamille G. Dombrowski, Claudio R. F. Marinho, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Aimee R. Taylor, James Watson, Cally Roper, Francois Nosten, Colin J. Sutherland, Susana Campino, Taane G. Clark AlthoughPlasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, they not always prioritised by elimination programmes.P.vivax is resilient and poses challenges through its ability to re-emerge from dormancy in the human liver. With observed growing drug-resistance and the increasing reports of life-threatening infections, new tools to inform elimination efforts are needed. In order to halt transmission, we need to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the movement of parasites, and the reservoirs of infection in order to design targeted interventions. The use of molecular genetics and epidemiology for tracking and studying malaria parasite populations has been applied successfully inP.falciparum species and here we sought to develop a molecular genetic tool forP.vivax. By assembling the largest set ofP.vivax whole genome sequences (n = 433) spanning 17 countries, and applying a machine learning approach, we created a 71 SNP barcode with high predictive ability to identify geographic origin (91.4%). Further, due to the inclusion of markers for within population variability, the barcode may also distinguish local transmission networks. By usingP.vivax data from a low-transmission settin...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

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This study aims to evaluate the mutations in four P. vivax drug resistance markers pvcrt-o (putative), pvmdr1 (putative), pvdhfr and pvdhps in 44 isolates from Malaysia. Finding indicates that 27.3%, 100%, 47.7%, and 27.3% of the isolates were carrying mutant allele in pvcrt-o, pvmdr1, pvdhfr and pvdhps genes, respectively. Most of the mutant isolates had multiple point mutations rather than single point mutation in pvmdr1 (41/44) and pvdhfr (19/21). One novel point mutation V111I was detected in pvdhfr. Allelic combination analysis shows significant strong association between mutations in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1 (X2 = 9.521, P
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Climate change is the greatest health challenge of the 21st century, and threatens all aspects of society, says the WHO in its COP24 Special Report. What could digital health technologies do to support the fight against the climate crisis? How could healthcare processes, facilities, medical devices become more sustainable? As it is humanity’s priority to mitigate the worsening as well as the impact of rising temperatures and extreme weather events, we tried to figure out what role digital health could assume here. We found many options – and even more possibilities for future development. The climate crisis...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine air asthma climate climate catastrophe climate change climate crisis digital digital health efficient Healthcare mosquito optimize resilience solar sustainability technology Source Type: blogs
This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2016 and summarizes trends in previous years. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC refer...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to estimate the malaria incidence attributable to the 2013 flood in Almanagil Locality, Gezira State in central Sudan. Methods Study Area Gezira State is located in the east-central region of Sudan, is crossed by the Blue Nile and is irrigated by two canals of the Gezira and Managil agriculture schemes. Almanagil Locality was in 2013 one of the 8 localities that constituted the Gezira State and was situated in the south western part of the state. Almanagil Town, the capital of the locality, is 62 km away from Wadmedani, the capital of Gezira State, and 156 km from Khartoum, the capital o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 010 Peer Reviewer: Dr Jennifer Ho, ID physician QLD, Australia You are an ED doc working in Perth over schoolies week. An 18 yo man comes into ED complaining of fever, rash a “cracking headache” and body aches. He has just hopped off the plane from Bali where he spent the last 2 weeks partying, boozing and running amok. He got bitten by “loads” of mosquitoes because he forgot to take insect repellent. On e...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine arthralgia dengue fever rash Source Type: blogs
We described a time series of malaria incidence for the 72 months of study for the entire area and divided by state. To address irregularities and error components, we smoothed the time series using a centred moving average of k=5, in which k is the number of observations that are averaged. This value was selected because it highlighted the best pattern of the data. We used the method of seasonal decomposition by Loess smoothing to capture the trend, seasonal and irregular components. A generalized linear model was applied to quantify this overall trend, and the Kruskal-Wallis Rank Sum test was applied to test for seasonal...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed to describe the cases of malaria that were reported in the peri-urban areas of Pereira (Colombia), between 2008 and 2015. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using data from the Malaria Surveillance System 2009-2015 and an outbreak study (between December 2008 and March 2009). Frequency distributions and summary measures, as well as univariate analysis were performed for all the variables in consideration. The annual parasite index (API) was calculated. FINDINGS: Data on 214 cases were obtained from the surveillance system. A majority of the cases were reported in men (63.1%), followed by in children
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
In conclusion, an outbreak of P. falciparum malaria was introduced into a malaria-free village by a migrant rubber tapper, by whom the imported parasite was introduced to the community via vector Anopheles balabacensis. Living near stagnant water bodies was the risk factor in this outbreak. PMID: 29141714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
We examined blood samples from patients presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of malaria as well as from local howler monkeys by microscopy and PCR. Samples were included from individuals if they had a history of travel to or resided in areas within the Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest, but not if they had malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion or tissue or organ transplantation, or had travelled to known malaria endemic areas in the preceding year. Additionally, we developed a molecular assay based on sequencing of the parasite mitochondrial genome to distinguish between P vivax and P simium, and applied this assay t...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Authors: Rezza G, Chen R, Weaver SC Abstract O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former. Prevention measures do not differ from those adopted against mal...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
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