Imaging spectrum of abnormal subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution

AbstractAdipose tissue plays multiple and complex roles not only in mechanical cushioning and energy storage but also as an important secretory organ that regulates energy balance and homeostasis multilaterally. Fat tissue is categorized into subcutaneous fat tissue (SCAT) or visceral fat tissue (VSA) depending on its distribution, with the two having different metabolic functions. Near-total lack of fat in congenital/acquired generalized lipodystrophy, cachexia, or any other severe malnutrition condition induces severe multi-organ dysfunction due to lack of production of leptin and other adipokines. Increased visceral fat tissue secondary to obesity, hypercortisolism, or multiple symmetric lipomatosis raises the risk of insulin resistance, cardiac complications, and airway or spinal canal stenosis, although the fat distribution pattern differs in each condition. Partial abnormal fat distribution conditions such as HIV/HAART therapy-associated lipodystrophy, familial partial lipodystrophies, and acquired partial lipodystrophy frequently show a mixture of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy with metabolic dysfunction. Characteristic imaging features in conditions with local abnormal fat distribution can provide information about a patient ’s co-existent/unrecognized disease(s), past medical history, or lifestyle. Knowledge of characteristic abnormal fat distribution patterns can contribute to proper and timely therapeutic decision-making and patient education.
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 05;:106577 Authors: Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R Abstract Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research
​BY JENNIFER TUONG; IVAN KHARCHENKO; JEAN LUC AGARD; &AHMED RAZIUDDIN, MDA 65-year-old man who had HIV well-controlled with highly active antiretroviral therapy, hypertension, sciatica, and restless leg syndrome presented to the emergency department with left leg pain. He also had had chemotherapy and radiation for anal cancer. The patient said the pain had started 45 minutes earlier when he was sitting on the toilet.He described the pain as sore in quality and 10/10 on the pain scale. He reported that it had started in his lower back and radiated to his left leg. He said he had had no trauma or weakness to the regio...
Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
Conclusion: 3T3-L1 cells, treated with LPV/RTV, show altered lipid content due to increased miRNA-218 levels, which affects lipin-1 mRNA. Moreover, increased miRNA-218 levels were inversely correlated with changes in GLUT-4 expression, which suggests a role for miRNA-218 in mediating the insulin resistance consequent to cART. Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a serious consequence of combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). HIV-associated metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by lipodystrophy (LS), the redistribution of body fat with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in face, limbs and buttocks, concomitant wit...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We examined the associations of anemia severity and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at HAART initiation and during monthly prospective follow-up with mortality among 40,657 adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of anemia severity and IDA at HAART initiation and during follow-up with mortality. A total of 6,261 deaths were reported. Anemia severity at HAART initiation and during follow-up was associated with an increasing risk of mortality (trend tests P
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Conclusions: The lipidome is altered in ART-treated HIV infection, and may contribute to inflammation and CVD progression. Detailed lipidomic analyses may better assess CVD risk in both HIV+ and HIV– individuals than does traditional lipid profiling. Introduction Both HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1, 2). Dyslipidemia is observed in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and elevated total (TC) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) chole...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Resumo O presente estudo analisou o consumo alimentar e a presen ça de fatores de risco cardiovasculares em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS (PVHA) em uso regular de antirretrovirais. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de questionário de frequência alimentar anual, dividido em alimentos protetores e não protetores para doença cardiovascular (DCV). Os dado s foram calculados pelo Teste t de Student para amostras independentes, pelo Teste U de Mann-Whitney e pelo teste exato de Fischer, considerando significativo p
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Paul ZimmetType 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many developing and developed nations, leading to talk of the “twin epidemics.” The latest projections from the International Diabetes Federation suggest that 190 million people worldwide currently have type 2 diabetes. In addition, ≥300 million people worldwide have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). These statistics represent an epidemic of major proportions—possibly the largest epidemic in human histor...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractObesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is on the rise. Bariatric procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) alter the GI tract. Whether this alteration has any impact on the absorption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), thus affecting HIV disease markers such as CD4 cell count or viral load (VL), is not yet known. We conducted this review to look into the outcomes of bariatric surgery procedures, RYGB, SG and adjustable gastric band (AGB) and its effects on the CD4 cell counts and VL and HAART therapy. A literature search was conducted...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Dimala CA, Kadia BM, Kemah BL, Tindong M, Choukem SP Abstract The aim of this study was to establish whether an independent relationship exists between CD4 count and hypertension and if this relationship is modified or confounded by the body mass index (BMI). Methods. A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study on 200 HIV/AIDS patients at a referral hospital in Cameroon was conducted. Linear and logistic regression models were used as appropriate to explore the association between the variables of interest. Results. There was no linear association between log CD4 count and both systolic (p = 0.200...
Source: International Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int J Hypertens Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of HA in particular age groups of HIV infected people is higher than in general Polish population. Hypertension is influenced by traditional risk factors and duration of HIV infection but not antiretroviral treatment. HIV/HCV coinfection appears to be protective against hypercholesterolemia. PMID: 28715065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Polish Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Kardiol Pol Source Type: research
More News: Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Education | Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Insulin | Obesity | Radiology | Universities & Medical Training