Role of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in hypertension: metabolic syndrome revisited

Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Alexandre A. da Silva, Jussara M. do Carmo, Xuan Li, Zhen Wang, Alan J. Mouton, John E. HallAbstractHyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were proposed more than 30 years ago to be important contributors to elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Support for this concept initially came from clinical and population studies showing correlations among hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and elevated BP in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Short-term studies in experimental animals and in humans provided additional evidence that hyperinsulinemia may evoke increases in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and renal sodium retention that, if sustained, could increase BP. Although insulin infusions may increase SNS activity and modestly raise BP in rodents, chronic insulin administration does not significantly increase BP in lean or obese insulin resistant rabbits, dogs, horses, or humans. Multiple studies in humans and experimental animals have also shown that severe insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may occur in the absence of elevated BP. These observations question whether insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are major factors linking obesity/metabolic syndrome with hypertension. Other mechanisms, such as physical compression of the kidneys, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Acta Myologica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Myol Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
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