Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 439: Patient-Derived Xenograft Models in Urological Malignancies: Urothelial Cell Carcinoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 439: Patient-Derived Xenograft Models in Urological Malignancies: Urothelial Cell Carcinoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020439 Authors: Andrew T. Tracey Katie S. Murray Jonathan A. Coleman Kwanghee Kim The engraftment of human tumor tissues into immunodeficient host mice to generate patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models has become increasingly utilized for many types of cancers. By capturing the unique genomic and molecular properties of the parental tumor, PDX models enable analysis of patient-specific clinical responses. PDX models are an important platform to address the contribution of inter-tumoral heterogeneity to therapeutic sensitivity, tumor evolution, and the mechanisms of treatment resistance. With the increasingly important role played by targeted therapies in urological malignancies, the establishment of representative PDX models can contribute to improved facilitation and adoption of precision medicine. In this review of the evolving role of the PDX in urothelial cancer and kidney cancer, we discuss the essential elements of successful graft development, effective translational application, and future directions for clinical models.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Abstract OBJECTIVES: In the Asian population, patterns and risk factors for de novo malignancies after solid-organ transplant are not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insurance claims from Taiwan's National Health Institute Research Database from 1997 to 2011 revealed 687 deceased-donor heart transplant recipients, 5038 kidney transplant recipients (50% living related-donor, 50% deceased-donor transplants), and 2127 liver transplant recipients (mainly living related-donor transplants, 30% deceased-donor transplants). During the follow-up period, rates of malignancy incidence were calculated with standa...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research
Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the urinary system and the second-most common type of renal cell carcinoma. Aurora kinase A (AURKA), a serine/threonine kinase, has a critical role in centrosome duplication, spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Here, we determined the correlation between UCC susceptibility and AURKA polymorphisms. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the genotype distributions and allelic frequencies of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AURKA, namely rs1047972, rs2273535, rs2064863, and rs6024836, between 431 UCC cases and 862 ...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
The authors report 27 patients rendered surgically (N  = 23) or functionally (N = 4) anephric after kidney cancer operations. Sixteen patients had renal cell carcinoma (RCC, histologic subtype not specified) and 9 transitional cell carcinoma. No partial nephrectomies were done in the 7 T1 patients (5 due to severe preexisting chronic kidney dis ease (CKD) and 2 due to anatomic complexity). Only 4 patients underwent renal transplantation, all T1a RCC (
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Dominik Deniffel, Andreas Sauter, Julia Dangelmaier, Alexander Fingerle, Ernst J. Rummeny, Daniela PfeifferABSTRACTIntroductionTo investigate the utility of quantitative dual-energy spectral CT derived iodine concentration (IC), in comparison with conventional CT attenuation, for the differentiation of pulmonary metastases from different primary malignancies.Materials and MethodsCT scans were performed on a dual-layer spectral CT. We retrospectively evaluated pulmonary metastases of 130 patients (77 men and 53 women, mean age...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Preliminary clinical results indicated that the value of SUV of high-grade gliomas is significantly higher than low-grade gliomas by 68Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT. It can effectively differential the low grade gliomas from high grade gliomas.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Neurooncology - Novel PET Approaches Source Type: research
Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard therapy for advanced or metastatic urothelial as well as renal cell carcinoma. Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab have been approved for the treatment of cisplatin-ineligible patients with transitional call cancer in the 1st line setting; both antibodies and Nivolumab may also be used after platinum based prior therapy. Regarding renal cell carcinoma approval for 1st line treatment with the combination of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab for patients at intermediate or high risk (IMDC) is currently expected. Furthermore, Nivolumab is approved for renal cell carcino...
Source: Der Urologe. Ausg. A - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urologe A Source Type: research
Das bewegt die Urologie – Aktuelles von den Kongressen 2017. Aktuelle Urol. 2018 Feb;49(1):25-36 Authors: Heers H, Boegemann M, Hegele A Abstract In 2017, many new and promising therapeutic innovations entered uro-oncology. Immunotherapy was highly topical and was intensively discussed at the annual meetings. This review summarises the news, together with future developments in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate, bladder and kidney cancer. Within the last year, there have been major developments in the treatment of hormone sensitive metastastic prostate cancer, metastatic transitional cell ...
Source: Aktuelle Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Aktuelle Urol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Application of appropriate indication for transplantectomy relies on benefit-risk balance between the interruption of immunosuppressive agents versus survival and quality of life impairment after returning to dialysis. No robust recommendation exists regarding switch of immunosuppressive drugs. Cancer predictive factors and access to a subsequent transplantation are key decisive elements. PMID: 27665407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
This study profiled and identified differentially expressed serum proteins in stage T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based mass spectrometry. A total amount of 99 serum samples including 29 patients with ccRCC, 24 patients with a benign kidney mass, 28 patients with another type of urological tumor (20 cases of transitional cell carcinoma and 8 cases of prostate cancer or a male genital tumor), and 18 healthy controls were subjected to iTRAQ-based mass spectrometry. ProteinPilot software was used to identify the differentially expressed serum proteins in RC...
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
Conclusions Usually, 18F-FLT PET/CT is not suitable for detection of the primary lesions of urinary tract tumors because of its urinary excretion, whereas their metastatic lesions can be detected by 18F-FLT PET/CT. Nevertheless, in patients whose urinary excretion of 18F-FLT is disturbed by renal failures, 18F-FLT PET/CT is useful for detection of the primary lesions of urinary tract tumors.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: MTA I: Prostate/GU Posters Source Type: research
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