Does aerobic exercise benefit persons with tetraplegia from spinal cord injury? A systematic review.

Conclusion: Evidence gathered from this systematic review of literature is inconclusive due to the lack of research focusing on those with tetraplegia. Higher power studies (level 1-3) are needed with the focus on those with tetraplegia. PMID: 32043944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research

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Conclusion/Clinical Relevance: The case demonstrated that refractory AD could be managed with ITB in an emergency. PMID: 31815605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research
Abstract The output from a motor nucleus is determined by the synaptic input to the motor neurons and their intrinsic properties. Here, we explore whether the source of synaptic inputs to the motor neurons (cats) and the age or post-stroke conditions (humans) may change the recruitment gain of the motor neuron pool. In cats, the size of Ia EPSPs in triceps surae motor neurons (input) and monosynaptic reflexes (MSRs; output) was recorded in the soleus and medial gastrocnemius motor nerves following graded stimulation of dorsal roots. The MSR was plotted against the EPSP thereby obtaining a measure of the recruitmen...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Conclusion To conclude, this study suggests a preserved plasticity in the skeletal muscle of a patient with MELAS. More importantly, Resistance Training appears to be a safe and effective method to increase skeletal muscle function in this patient population, and this effect is mediated by both neuromuscular and mitochondrial adaptations. However, particular attention and caution is needed in the interpretation of the data of this single case study and further studies are warranted including larger sample of patients. Ethics Statement For this case study the participant caregiver provided written informed consent. Auth...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review we have summarized the critical role phagocytosis plays in both CNS homeostasis and disease. While much progress has been made in recent years, many unanswered questions remain. How phagocytosis in the CNS is influenced by numerous factors, such as microenvironment or phagocytic target, have yet to be fully resolved. Additionally, the utilization of novel technologies, including in vivo imaging techniques (217), iPSC-derived microglia (213) and high-throughput screens (66), will likely contribute to further identification of phagocytic pathways and consequences of phagocytosis w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2018Source: PM&R, Volume 10, Issue 9, Supplement 2Author(s): Zoe K. Sarafis, Aaron K. Monga, Aaron A. Phillips, Andrei V. KrassioukovAbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) often results in the devastating loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function. After SCI, the interruption of descending sympathoexcitatory pathways disrupts supraspinal control of blood pressure (BP). A common clinical consequence of cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is orthostatic hypotension (OH), a debilitating condition characterized by rapid profound decreases in BP when assuming an upright posture. OH can result in a div...
Source: PMandR - Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research
Spasticity is a movement disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone and a hyperexcitable stretch reflex. Common causes of spasticity include cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Surgical treatment plans for spasticity must be highly individualized and based on the characteristics of patients and the spasticity in order to maximize functional gains. Candidates for surgery must be carefully selected. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology of spasticity and discuss general considerations for surgical management with an emphasis on patient factors and spasticity character...
Source: Hand Clinics - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Spasticity occurs frequently following lesions of central motor pathways in neurological disorders such as stroke (Malhotra et al., 2009; Sommerfeld et al., 2012), spinal cord injury (Sheean, 2002), multiple sclerosis (MS) (Sinkjaer et al., 1993; Mayer, 1997) and cerebral palsy (CP) (Gracies, 2005). Spasticity is most commonly defined as a velocity dependent increase in muscle tone with exaggeration of the stretch reflex circuitry (Lance, 1980). However, in the clinic a somewhat broader understanding of spasticity, which also includes sustained muscle contractions such as spasms and spastic dystonia as well as alterations ...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionDespite high prevalence rates and important clinical implications, sexual dysfunction is not systematically assessed in women presenting various neurological conditions. Several well-validated tools exist for such assessments, which could be used for sexual rehabilitation in these patients. The implementation of systematic assessments of sexual potential is feasible and renewed efforts should be made to do so in clinical practice.
Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research
AbstractNeurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis cause motor impairments that are a huge burden at the individual, family, and societal levels. Spinal reflex abnormalities contribute to these impairments. Spinal reflex measurements play important roles in characterizing and monitoring neurological disorders and their associated motor impairments, such as spasticity, which affects nearly half of those with neurological disorders. Spinal reflexes can also serve as therapeutic targets themselves. Operant conditioning protocols can target benefic...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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