Recent Research Efforts to Achieve Neuroprotection, Progression and Treatment of Glaucoma.

This article reviews current theories of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glaucoma and recent research - with a focus on neuroprotection and current preclinical and clinical studies to improve the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. PMID: 32040976 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Klin Monbl Augenheilkd Source Type: research

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The transient receptor potential vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1) in the central nervous system may contribute to homeostatic plasticity by regulating intracellular Ca2+, which becomes unbalanced in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy – the world’s leading cause of irreversible blindness – involves progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the optic nerve through sensitivity to stress related to intraocular pressure (IOP). In models of glaucoma, genetic deletion of TRPV1 (Trpv1–/–) accelerate...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, MgAT prevents ET-1 induced RGC loss and loss of visual functions by suppressing neuroinflammatory reaction in rat retinas. PMID: 32156652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Abstract Glaucoma, the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is characterized by the selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR II) activation has been linked to RGC survival, however, the mechanism by which it promotes neuronal survival remains poorly defined. In the present work, we show that extracellular application of LY341495, an mGluR II antagonist could increase the RGC firing frequency, suggesting that activation of mGluR II by endogenously released glutamate could modulate RGC excitability. LY354740, an mGluR II agonist, signi...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Ahmad A, Ahsan H Abstract The review article focuses on free radicals and oxidative stress involved in ophthalmological diseases such as retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, etc. Oxidative stress is considered as a key factor involved in the pathology of many chronic diseases including ophthalmic complication and inflammatory process. Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related pathophysiological processes and are simultaneously found in many pathological conditions. The free radicals produced oxidize cellular components such as lipids and phospholipids leading to lipid peroxidation and trigger the o...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
Glaucoma is a globally unmet medical challenge and the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, which permanently damages the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible blindness. Present therapies target solely at lowering intraocular ocular pressure (IOP), a major risk factor of the disease; however, elevated IOP is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause glaucoma. Glaucomatous RGC and nerve fiber loss also occur in individuals with normal IOP. Recent studies have provided evidence indicating a link between elevated IOP and T cell-mediated autoimmune responses, particularly that are specifi...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Reinehr S, Grotegut P, Tsai T, Wagner N, Joachim SC Abstract In view of the aging members of our society, there will be an increase in severe visual impairment and blindness, also due to glaucoma, in the coming years. Therapy options are limited to treat occurring symptoms. Currently, only a deceleration of the pathogenesis progression, but no cure, is available. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat glaucoma adequately and effectively, thus improving the quality of life of those affected. One possible approach seems to be primary neuroprotection, which acts independentl...
Source: Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Klin Monbl Augenheilkd Source Type: research
This study investigated the effect of PTEN/SOCS3 genetic deletion on the structural integrity of RGC dendrites and axons in the retina following optic nerve crush. Using time lapse, in vivo confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy to serially image dendritic and axonal arborizations of RGCs over six months after injury, RGC dendrites and axons were only preserved in Thy-1-YFP/PTEN-/- and Thy-1-YFP/PTEN-/-SOCS3-/- mice, and axons in the retina regenerated at a rate of 21.1  μm/day and 15.5  μm/day, respectively. By contrast, dendritic complexity significantly decreased in Thy-1-YFP-SOCS3-/- and control mice at a...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Authors: Cho C, Duong TT, Mills JA Abstract Patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been critical in advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of numerous retinal disorders. Many of these retinal disorders have no effective treatment and result in severe visual impairment and even blindness. Among the retinal degenerative diseases modeled by iPSCs are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). In addition to studying retinal disease ontogenesis and patholog...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang X, Tenerelli K, Wu S, Xia X, Yokota S, Sun C, Galvao J, Venugopalan P, Li C, Madaan A, Goldberg JL, Chang KC Abstract BACKGROUND: Glaucoma, the number one cause of irreversible blindness, is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which do not regenerate in humans or mammals after cell death. Cell transplantation provides an opportunity to restore vision in glaucoma, or other optic neuropathies. Since transplanting primary RGCs from deceased donor tissues may not be feasible, stem cell-derived RGCs could provide a plausible alternative source of donor cells for transplant. OBJ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
AbstractGlaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Even though significant advances have been made in its management, currently available antiglaucoma therapies suffer from considerable drawbacks. Typically, the success and efficacy of glaucoma medications are undermined by their limited bioavailability to target tissues and the inadequate adherence demonstrated by patients with glaucoma. The latter is due to a gradual decrease in tolerability of lifelong topical therapies and the significant burden to patients of prescribed stepwise antiglaucoma regimens with frequent dosing which impact quality of life....
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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