Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for prostate cancer imaging
AbstractImaging plays an increasing role in prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Accurate staging of prostate cancer is required for optimal treatment planning. In detecting extraprostatic cancer and sites of early recurrence, traditional imaging methods (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide bone scan) have suboptimal performance. This leaves a gap between known disease recurrence as indicated by rising prostate-specific antigen and the ability to localize the recurrence on imaging. Novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents including radiolabeled choline, fluciclovine (18F-FACBC), and agents targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen are being developed and tested to increase diagnostic performance of non-invasive prostate cancer localization. When combined with CT or MRI, these tracers offer a combination of functional information and anatomic localization that is superior to conventional imaging methods. These PET radiotracers have varying mechanisms and excretion patterns affecting their pharmacokinetics and diagnostic performance, which will be reviewed in this article.
The diagnostic performance of 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) (NaF), 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT (FCH) and diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (DW-M...
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRIAuthor(s): Devaki Shilpa Sudha Surasi, Brian Chapin, Chad Tang, Gregory Ravizzini, Tharakeswara Kumar BathalaAbstractProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer related death in the United States. Men with clinical suspicion of PCa undergo tissue sampling and based on features including the Gleason score, Prostate Specific antigen (PSA) levels and clinical tumor (T) stage, patients are risk stratified into 6 major groups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Netwo...
Positron-emission tomography (PET) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been increasingly used to image prostate cancer in the last decade. In the staging setting several studies have already been published suggesting PSMA PET can be a valuable tool. They, however, did not translate into recommendations by guidelines. Both PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging have been investigated in the staging setting, showing higher detection rate of prostate cancer lesions over the conventional imaging work-up and some studies already showed an impact on disease management. The aim of this...
Conclusions: In routine clinical practice, conventional imaging still have a role, and communication between imagers and clinicians should be encouraged. Present and future clinical trials should use modern imaging methods to clarify their usage.
is a major health problem. In the UK, it is the most common male cancer and the second most common cause of male cancer death. Its strongest predeterminant is increasing age. Virtually all cancers are adenocarcinomas, the grade being indicated by the Gleason score. There are often no presenting symptoms. Investigations such as serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, biopsy and, increasingly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are required for diagnosis. Local staging consists of MRI, with computed tomography (CT), bone scanning and, increasingly, positron emission tomography-CT for detecting metastases.
Conclusion: By use of our nomogram, bone scans of men with prostate cancer can be avoided in a large proportion of men. PMID: 31805808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: Incidental lesions detected in the prostate by FDG PET may represent clinically significant CaP. Referral to a urologist for further evaluation should be considered if the patient is otherwise in reasonable health. PMID: 31793859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: Both furosemide and scatter correction algorithm play a role in reducing scatter in PSMA PET. Improved TOF scatter correction resulted in the lowest scatter severity. PMID: 31749411 [PubMed]
CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrate the clinical acceptability of substituting MR converted RSP images instead of CT for IMPT planning of prostate cancer. This further translates into higher contouring accuracy along with lesser imaging dose. PMID: 31734604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
For accurate dose calculations, Proton therapy planning requires the conversion of the computed tomography (CT) data from Hounsfield units (HU) to relative proton stopping power (RSP) according to an appropriate mapping . That conversion prevents using other imaging modalities such as cone-beam CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MR), positron emission tomography, etc. for proton dose calculations.