Interplay Between Gut Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Peptides: Potential Outcomes on the Regulation of Glucose Control

Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Joseph Lupien-Meilleur, David E. Andrich, Samantha Quinn, Clément Micaelli-Baret, Roxane St-Amand, Denis Roy, David H. St-PierreAbstractA host of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides influence the regulation of vital functions, such as growth, appetite, stress, gut motility, energy expenditure, digestion and inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid homeostasis. Hence, impairments in the synthesis/secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, nesfatin-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), ghrelin (acylated and unacylated forms), oxyntomodulin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin, peptide tyrosine‚Äítyrosine, GLP-2 and pancreatic polypeptide were previously associated with the development of obesity-related disorders. It is currently emphasized that the beneficial metabolic outcomes associated with the normalization of the gut microbiota (GM) is influenced by increases in GLP-1 and peptide YY secretion as well as by decreases in acylated ghrelin production. These effects are associated with reductions in body weight and adiposity in combination with the normalization of glucose and lipid metabolism. However, important questions remain unanswered regarding how GLP-1, peptide tyrosine‚Äítyrosine, acylated ghrelin and other metabolically relevant GI peptides interact with the GM to modulate the host’s metabolic functions. In additi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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