Updates on the Management of Thyroid Cancer

Horm Metab Res DOI: 10.1055/a-1089-7870The diagnostic modalities, stratification tools, and treatment options for patients with thyroid cancer have rapidly evolved since the development of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines in 2015. This review compiles newer concepts in diagnosis, stratification tools and treatment options for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Newer developments apply precision medicine in thyroid cancer patients to avoid over-treatment in low risk disease and under-treatment in high risk disease. Among novel patient-tailored therapies are selective RET inhibitors that have shown efficacy in the treatment of MTC with limited systemic toxicity compared with non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors have revolutionized management of BRAF V600E mutant ATC. Several immunotherapeutic agents are being actively investigated in the treatment of all forms of thyroid cancer. In this review, we describe the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of DTC, MTC, and ATC, with an emphasis on novel treatment modalities. [...] © © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Hormone and Metabolic Research - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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AbstractIt has been established that ZFP36 (also known as Tristetraprolin or TTP) promotes mRNA degradation of proteins involved in inflammation, proliferation and tumor invasiveness. In mammary epithelial cellsZFP36 expression is induced by STAT5 activation during lactogenesis, while in breast cancerZFP36 expression is associated with lower grade and better prognosis. Here, we show that the AP-1 transcription factor components, i.e.JUN, JUNB, FOS, FOSB, in addition toDUSP1, EGR1, NR4A1,IER2 andBTG2, behave as a conserved co-regulated group of genes whose expression is associated toZFP36 in cancer cells. In fact, a signifi...
Source: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that specific RET-haplotypes, in particular haplotype 2 and the T-allele of p.Leu769=, are associated with a reduced risk of sMTC in Italians. PMID: 32228166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
Authors: Lee YA, Im SW, Jung KC, Chung EJ, Shin CH, Kim JI, Park YJ Abstract Background Due to its very low prevalence, little is known about the genetic characteristics of pediatric follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Methods We investigated genetic alterations in tumor tissues from 15 patients aged
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe found a lower risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies in LFS breast cancer patients than previously reported in the literature (33% risk of radiation-induced sarcoma). These findings suggest that LFS may not be an absolute contraindication for radiotherapy in breast cancer. The potential risk for locoregional recurrence without radiotherapy must be weighed against the long-term risk for radiation-induced malignancies in consideration of adjuvant radiotherapy for LFS breast cancer patients.
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In our study cohort, the disease occurred predominantly in women and younger patients. Age, distant metastasis and nodal spread were the most significant prognostic factors. This study has also demonstrated that prognosis is not only affected by nodal involvement but also by side of involvement. The role of hemithyroidectomy in node negative unifocal disease with a small tumour size warrants further investigation. PMID: 32233867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann R Coll Surg Engl Source Type: research
BackgroundAberrant DNA methylation plays an crucial role in tumorigenesis through regulating gene expression. Nevertheless, the exact role of methylation in the carcinogenesis of thyroid cancer and its association with prognosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the DNA methylation-driven genes in thyroid cancer by integrative bioinformatics analysis.MethodsThe transcriptome profiling data and DNA methylation data of thyroid cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The methylmix R package was used to screen DNA methylation-driven genes in thyroid cancer. Gene Ontology (GO)...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
AbstractIn 2016, Nikiforov et al. (JAMA Oncol 2:1023 –1029, 2016) proposed replacing the term “non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma” (FVPTC) with the term “non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP). In 2018, to avoid the misdiagnosis of papillary thyroid canc er as NIFTP, the authors proposed changes to the criteria for NIFTP classification. Some previous studies evaluated the impact of NIFTP on the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnostic categories according to the Bet...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Abstract Thyroid cancer is one of the few malignancies whose incidence is increasing in the last decades. Advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms lead to provide opportunity for prevention, effective early identification and targeted therapies for management. A total of 63 patients with participated in this study Genomic DNA samples were obtained from the samples formalin- embedded tissue and peripheral blood. Following polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 6 RET key exons (10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16) were applied and PCR products were subjected to next generation DNA sequencing (ABI 3730). Res...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
In conclusion, we revealed that LHPP has an anti-tumor effect in PTC and indicated that LHPP might serve as an effective diagnostic and therapeutic target for PTC. PMID: 32227107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study suggests that lncBRM promotes PTC by regulating miR-331-3p and targeting SLC25A1. PMID: 32218861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
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