Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 405: Expression of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 405: Expression of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12020405 Authors: Terai Londin Rochani Link Lam Kaushal Bhushan Orloff Sato Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults and up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is highly resistant to immunotherapy. One of the mechanisms for resistance would be the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we have investigated the role of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in UM. Both TDO and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyze tryptophan and produce kynurenine, which could cause inhibition of T cell immune responses. We first studied the expression of TDO on tumor tissue specimens obtained from UM hepatic metastasis. High expression of TDO protein was confirmed in all hepatic metastasis. TDO was positive in both normal hepatocytes and the tumor cells with relatively higher expression in tumor cells. On the other hand, IDO protein remained undetectable in all of the MUM specimens. UM cell lines established from metastasis also expressed TDO protein and increasing kynurenine levels were detected in the supernatant of MUM cell culture. In TCGA database, higher TDO2 expression in primary UM significantly correlated to BAP1 mutation and monosomy 3. These results indicate that TDO might be one of the key mechanisms for resistance to immunother...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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ramarco Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular cancer. In recent decades, major advances have been achieved in the diagnosis and prognosis of UM allowing for tailored treatments. However, nearly 50% of patients still develop metastatic disease with survival rates of less than 1 year. There is currently no standard of adjuvant and metastatic treatment in UM, and available therapies are ineffective resulting from cutaneous melanoma protocols. Advances and novel treatment options including liver-directed therapies, immunotherapy, and targeted-therapy have been investigated in UM-dedicated clinical trials on si...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, we addressed this question by analyzing PD-1 and CTLA4 levels in 33 different types of cancer along with their prognostic significance using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia datasets. Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) patients receiving cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) immunotherapy at Sun Yat-sen University cancer center were enrolled for survival analysis. The correlation between PD-1/CTLA4 expression and cancer immunity was also analyzed. The results showed that PD-1 and CTLA4 transcript levels varied across cancer cell lines, with aberrant expression detected in cert...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that there are no important differences in OS when comparing the different current treatment modalities. Most of the differences found seem to be explained by the heterogenicity of the different studies and the presence of biases in their design, rather than actual extensions of patient survival.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Schroeder Andrea Forschner The detection of somatic driver mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming increasingly important in the care of advanced melanoma patients. In our study, we evaluated the NGS results of 82 melanoma patients from clinical routine in 2017. Besides determining the tumor mutational burden (TMB) and annotation of all genetic driver alterations, we investigated their potential as a predictor for resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and as a distinguishing feature between melanoma subtypes. Melanomas of unknown primary had a similar mutation pattern and TMB to cutaneous...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Malignant melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. It originates from melanocytic cells and can also arise at other body sites. Early diagnosis and appropriate medical care offer excellent prognosis with up to 5-year survival rate in more than 95% of all patients. However, long-term survival rate for metastatic melanoma patients remains at only 5%. Indeed, malignant melanoma is known for its notorious resistance to most current therapies and is characterized by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. In cutaneous melanoma (CM), genetic alterations have been implicated in drug resistance, yet the main cause of this...
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions: The infiltration of immune cells in 32 cancer types was quantified, and considerable heterogeneity was observed in the prognostic relevance of these cells in different cancer types. An ICCS model was constructed for LUAD with competent prognostic performance, which can further deepen our understanding of the TME of LUAD and can have implications for immunotherapy.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
n Utikal Tumorigenesis is correlated with abnormal expression and activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and associated G proteins. Oncogenic mutations in both GPCRs and G proteins (GNAS, GNAQ or GNA11) encoding genes have been identified in a significant number of tumors. Interestingly, uveal melanoma driver mutations in GNAQ/GNA11 were identified for a decade, but their discovery did not lead to mutation-specific drug development, unlike it the case for BRAF mutations in cutaneous melanoma which saw enormous success. Moreover, new immunotherapies strategies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have given und...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Immunotherapy has recently become a powerful weapon against cancer. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) was the first immune checkpoint used for immunotherapy. However, CTLA-4-related mechanisms in various cancers have not been comprehensively investigated. This aim of this study was an in-depth investigation of CTLA-4 in the tumor microenvironment and its relationship with other immunomodulators, immune-related pathways and survival outcomes of 33 cancer types. Overall 9,743 tumor samples and 710 normal samples of 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were included...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
This study analyzed the immune landscape of adaptive immune resistance signatures and infiltrating immune cells in the TME of UM. Identification of these immune-related biomarkers may thus enable the prediction of prognosis and the selection of optimal immunotherapy strategies in UM. PMID: 32439398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
(University of Turku) New study from researchers in Finland and the United Kingdom reveals that tumors lacking a protein called BAP1 have an ineffective immune reaction against cancer, thus rendering immunotherapies ineffectual, particularly in uveal melanomas (UM). The researchers also discovered that when BAP1 is lost, other molecules will be present in order to support cancer growth. Luckily, some of these molecules can be targeted with existing drugs, which can lead to the development of novel immunotherapies.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
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