First report on molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Reticuloendotheliosis virus in Sudan

AbstractThe reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) group of retroviruses infects a wide range of avian species, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, and prairie chickens. The infection can result in immunosuppression, runting syndrome, high mortality, acute reticular cell neoplasia, or T- and/or B-cell lymphoma. One PCR positive chicken spleen sample obtained in a previous study in addition to one Marek ʼs disease and three fowl pox (FP) vaccine samples were investigated in this study. A PCR assay was performed to detect the presence of REV provirus DNA in these samples. The results indicated the contamination of fowl pox virus and Marekʼs disease vaccines with REV. In addition, detection of inte gration of REV inside the genome of fowl pox vaccine was confirmed using primers corresponding to the FPV DNA regions flanking the REV integration site. Alignments of two sequences, one from the spleen tissue and the other from contaminated FP vaccine with REV, with other REV (env) gene sequences obtained from GenBank indicated their high similarity. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the partial part of (env) gene of our two isolates was closely related to variants from India, USA, Taiwan, and China. These results confirmed the contamination of commercial fowl pox and Marek ’s disease vaccines used in Sudan with REV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the partial part of (env) gene sequences from Sudan was closely related to variants from India, USA,...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that causes deadly T-cell lymphomas and serves as a natural virus-induced tumor model in chickens. Although Marek's disease (MD) is well controlled by current vaccines, the evolution of MDV field viruses towards increasing virulence is concerning as a better vaccine to combat very virulent plus MDV is still lacking. Our understanding of molecular and cellular immunity to MDV and its immunopathogenesis has significantly improved, but those findings about cellular immunity to MDV are largely out-of-date, hampering the development of more eff...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
In a cohort of HIV ‐positive patients with diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Malawi, we demonstrate that high plasma Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) DNA level at diagnosis (≥3.0 log10 copies/mL) is associated with decreased overall survival. Notably, even in those HIV ‐positive patients with EBV‐negative tumors, high plasma EBV DNA remained associated with shorter survival. These results suggest that EBV reactivation in nontumor cells is a poor prognostic finding in HIV‐positive patients with EBV‐negative DLBCL. AbstractPlasma Epstein ‐Barr virus (EBV) DNA measurement has established prognostic utility i...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
This study reports the molecular characterisation of a GaHV-2 strain detected in a flock of Italian meat-type turkeys exhibiting visceral lymphomas. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the meq gene revealed that the turkey GaHV-2 has molecular features of high virulence and genetic similarity with GaHV-2 strains recently detected in Italian commercial and backyard chickens. GaHV-2 is ubiquitous among chickens despite the vaccination, and chicken-to-turkey transmission is hypothesised due to the presence of broilers in neighbouring pens.Research highlights A GaHV-2 strain from Italian turkeys was molecularly characteris...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Authors: Gao X, Sun Y, Li X Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent causes of joint disease. However, the pathological mechanisms of OA have remained to be completely elucidated, and further investigation into the underlying mechanisms of OA development and the identification of novel therapeutic targets are urgently required. In the present study, the dataset GSE114007 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), the microarray data were further analyzed to i...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
In this study, we used this natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced cancer by infecting chickens with MDV, and evaluated the protective efficacy of TF27 and the nucleoside analogue valganciclovir (VGCV) on virus replication and tumorigenesis. We could demonstrate that both drugs reduced viral load in the blood and prevented tumor development in a large portion of the animals. Antiviral treatment also had a positive impact on body weight gain, while no negative compound-associated side effects were observed. This research provides the first evidence that the artesunate derivative TF27 and VGCV can be used in avian ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we used this natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced cancer by infecting chickens with MDV, and evaluated the protective efficacy of TF27 and the nucleoside analogue valganciclovir (VGCV) on virus replication and tumorigenesis. We could demonstrate that both drugs reduced viral load in the blood and prevented tumor development in a large portion of the animals. Antiviral treatment also had a positive impact on body weight gain, while no negative compound-associated side effects were observed. This research provides the first evidence that the artesunate derivative TF27 and VGCV can be used in avian ...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Abstract One of the most significant challenges of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research is to understand how alterations in the symbiotic relationship between the genetic composition of the host and the intestinal microbiota, under impact of specific environmental factors, lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Genome-wide association studies, followed by functional studies, have identified a role for numerous autophagy genes in IBD, especially in Crohn disease. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models, in addition to human clinical studies have revealed that autophagy is pivotal for intestinal homeostasis...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Lakshmi Sunkaraa, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Mohammad HeidariAbstractMarek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study demonstrated the importance of metabolite identification for the discovery of novel and safe drug candidates for the treatment of FOP and helped medicinal chemists steer away from potential metabolic liabilities. Introduction Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare congenital disorder involving progressive and widespread postnatal ossification of soft tissues (Buyse et al., 1995). The heterotopic ossification occurs independently from normal bone and progresses in a well-defined spatial pattern. It forms ribbons, sheets and plates of bone that may fuse the joints of the individual. The ecto...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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